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bull[Lat. bulla=leaden seal], papal letter. As the diplomatic organization of the papal chancery progressed in the Middle Ages, the papal bull came to be more solemn than the papal brief or encyclicalencyclical,
originally, a pastoral letter sent out by a bishop, now a solemn papal letter, meant to inform the whole church on some particular matter of importance. Benedict XIV circulated the first known encyclical in 1740.
..... Click the link for more information. . The letter, traditionally sealed with lead, but in special circumstances with silver or gold, begins with the name of the pope and his title as servus servorum Dei [servant of the servants of God]. Today only the consistorial bull, the most solemn of all papal pronouncements, carries the leaden seal; all other bulls and lesser documents have a red ink seal. The titles of bulls are the first few words of its Latin text. Famous bulls include Clericis laicos (1296) and Unam sanctam (1302) issued by Boniface VIII in his struggle with Philip IV of France; the Bull of Demarcation (1493) by Alexander VI; Exsurge Domine (1520) by Leo X against Martin Luther; Unigenitus (1713) by Clement XI, against Jansenism; Dominus ac Redemptor (1773) by Clement XIV, suppressing the Jesuits; Quanta cura (1864) by Pius IX, introducing the Syllabus errorum; Pastor aeternus (1871) by Pius IX, on papal infallibility; and Munificentissimus Deus (1950) by Pius XII, defining the dogma of the Assumption of the Virgin Mary. Pope John XXIII issued a consistorial bull, Humanae Salutis, in 1961 to convoke the 21st ecumenical council. The papal bull is used to proclaim the canonization of a saint. A bullarium is a collection of papal bulls; the most famous published bullaria are the Roman Bullarium (1733–62) and the Turin Bullarium (1857–85).
name for the ruminant mammals of the genus Bos, and particularly those of the domesticated species, Bos taurus and B. indica. The term oxen, broadly used, refers also to closely related animals, such as the buffalo and the bison.
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Bull(religion, spiritualism, and occult)
The Bull is a popular name for the sign Taurus.
the male of cattle; the sire. Bulls are taller than cows and have more massive torsos. The forepart of the torso is better developed than the rear, and the head is more coarse, the neck thicker, the chest wider and deeper, and the shoulders more rounded than are the corresponding parts of cows.
The liveweight of bulls of dairy breeds is 750-850 kg and of meat breeds, 700-800 kg. Sexual maturity is reached at six to eight months of age. Bulls of fast-maturing breeds are allowed to mate (depending on the conditions of growth) at 14 to 16 months, and those of slow-maturing breeds, at 16 to 18 months. The best bulls are selected for breeding. The factors taken into account are breed, lineage, conformation, constitution, state of health, expression of sex, sexual activity, and quality of the offspring. Bulls can be used for breeding for six to eight years, though some preserve their potency for 12 to 14 years. In free mating one bull can service 50 to 70 cows; in directed mating, 150 to 200 cows; and with artificial insemination, the sperm of one bull can inseminate 1, 000 to 3, 000 cows. With the sperm of the best bulls, at least 5, 000 cows can be serviced. Bulls which give poor-quality sperm are not allowed to mate. The role of the sire in completing a herd is great; therefore, sire bulls are given the best feeding and living conditions. A bull’s ration must completely fulfill his requirements for protein, minerals, and vitamins. Bulls are given daily per 100 kg: 1-1.5 kg of hay, 1-1.5 kg of root crops, and 0.8 to 1 kg of silage. In addition, 2-5 kg of a mixture of concentrates per head are given daily. During heightened work periods, food of animal origin and vitamins are added. In summer bulls are kept in pastures (in camps), and in the winter they are kept in cow barns in special stalls. They must be allowed out (two to three hours a day) or used for light work. Those animals unfit for breed work are castrated, fattened for meat, or used as draft animals.
REFERENCESVsiakikh, A. S. Vyrashchivanie i ispol’zovanie plemennykh bykov. Moscow, 1948.
Fandeev, B. V. Krupnyi rogatyi skot, 3rd ed. Moscow, 1963.
Gerchikov, N. P. Skotovodstvo, 2nd ed. Moscow, 1964.
Rekomendatsii po kormleniiu i soderzhaniiu plemennykh proizvoditelei. Moscow, 1966.
B. V. FANDEEV
What does it mean when you dream about a bull?
The bull is a rich dream symbol. Perhaps the dreamer is being too bullheaded about some issue and needs to seek compromise. The bull can also symbolize a large, powerful, and somewhat clumsy person (“a bull in a china shop”), as well as a person optimistic (bullish) about the future course of events, as in business.
Bull(Bull Worldwide Information Systems, Billerica, MA, Group Bull, Paris, France, www.bull.com) A computer and information services company with offices in more than 100 countries. A leading advocate of open source software, Bull offers Intel-based servers running the GCOS operating system and PowerPC-based servers running AIX. One of its business units provides a complete line of networked storage products, while its Trustway appliance products are known for their open source security options for VPNs.
Bull was founded in France in 1933 and named after Norwegian engineer Fredrik Rosing Bull. Bull had created a revolutionary adding-sorting punch card machine in 1921, and his patents were purchased by the company. In the 1960s, Bull partnered with GE in computer development in France. When Honeywell took over GE's computer business in 1970, its French division became Honeywell Bull. In 1987, Honeywell turned all its computer business over to Bull. For a while, both Honeywell and NEC had ownership in the company, which was named Bull HN. Today, all operations, with particular focus in the manufacturing, banking, finance, and telecom sectors, are under the Bull name. See Honeywell.