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The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.



a round metal seal made of lead, silver, or gold, which was usually used in the Middle Ages to fasten papal, imperial, and royal acts (documents) by being tied to the document by a string; the act itself, with the bulla tied to it, was also called a bulla. [In English the act is called a bull.] The most important royal and imperial decrees, fastened with golden seals, came to be called Golden Bulls (such as the Golden Bull of 1222, issued by the Hungarian King Andrew II, and the Golden Bull of 1356, issued by Charles IV of the Holy Roman Empire). In later centuries, up until modern times, the term “bulla” was used to designate only the most important acts issued by the popes of Rome.

The supplementary historical discipline known as sphragistics studies medieval bull seals.


The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.


A circular metal boss used by the ancient Romans as a decoration for fastening parts of doors; often highly ornamented.
McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Architecture and Construction. Copyright © 2003 by McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
References in periodicals archive ?
Bullae or vesicles are considered rare manifestations of parvovirus B19 infection, which more typically presents with a "slapped-cheek" appearance and lacy exanthema, sometimes called erythema infectiosum.
Diagnosis is usually made on clinical grounds based on the presence of large, tense, superficial, and typically painful bullae, the base of which may be erythematous.
Tzanck cell may not be present in all the cases of pemphigus group due to various reasons like secondary infection and ruptured bullae. Out of 31 clinically diagnosed cases of PV, consistent histopathological features were seen in 30 cases.
Bullous impetigo (A), caused by Streptococcus pyogenes or Staphylococcus aureus can present with vesicles and bullae due to staphylococcal exfoliative toxins (exfoliatin A-D) which cause separation at the superficial epidermal level.
Dental treatment of these patients is a great challenge to avoid new bullae formation, so they need special dental care by using soft dental brush, restoration of carious teeth and preventive treatment by frequent application of fluoride, also patients may need diet supplement as proteins, vitamins and iron to prevent anemia.7 The aim of presenting these two case reports was to describe the oral and dental features of two different types of Epidermolysis bullosa; simplex and dystrophic types and to discuss their dental management.
A diagnosis of diabetic dermopathy("shin spots") and diabetic bullae in the same patient was taken into consideration.Antibiotics administered orally, careful hygiene, topical steroids class III and emollients were recommended and a close follow- up of the patient was ensured for the next 6 months.
Clinical evolution of bullous erythema nodosum leprosum: (a) Raised erythematous lesions on both arms and forearms (b) Central clearing in few lesions (c) Bullae developing on periphery of plaques (d) Well defined tense bullae on the underlying plaques.
Thelichenoid lesions typically show histopathologic features indistinguishable from those of lichen planus: orthokeratosis, hypergranulosis, irregularacanthosis, basal cell hydropic degeneration with cytoid body formation, dense chronic inflammatory infiltration and pigment incontinence (5).In our case biopsy of the bullae reaveled a subepidermal bulla with inflammatory cell infiltration mainly by lymphocytes and eosinophils.
We believe that the harsh conditions at higher elevations that include lower oxygen concentration, shorter growing season, and constant strong wind work against auditory acuity, and the increase in the size of auditory bullae of M.
A giant bulla is a large pocket of air occupying at least one third of the hemithorax.1 These bullae arise as a result of disease processes like emphysema whereby areas of weakness develop within the lung and eventually reach a size at which they fill preferentially to the adjacent lung tissue.
The purpose of this publication is to create an inventory of the impressions of Near Eastern stamp seals on cuneiform tablets and clay bullae, and on pottery jar handles from Palestine, now in the collections of the British Museum.