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a round metal seal made of lead, silver, or gold, which was usually used in the Middle Ages to fasten papal, imperial, and royal acts (documents) by being tied to the document by a string; the act itself, with the bulla tied to it, was also called a bulla. [In English the act is called a bull.] The most important royal and imperial decrees, fastened with golden seals, came to be called Golden Bulls (such as the Golden Bull of 1222, issued by the Hungarian King Andrew II, and the Golden Bull of 1356, issued by Charles IV of the Holy Roman Empire). In later centuries, up until modern times, the term “bulla” was used to designate only the most important acts issued by the popes of Rome.

The supplementary historical discipline known as sphragistics studies medieval bull seals.



A circular metal boss used by the ancient Romans as a decoration for fastening parts of doors; often highly ornamented.
References in periodicals archive ?
Diagnosis is usually made on clinical grounds based on the presence of large, tense, superficial, and typically painful bullae, the base of which may be erythematous.
The patient was 18-year male presented with intensely pruritic tense vesicles and bullae all over the body.
Bullous impetigo (A), caused by Streptococcus pyogenes or Staphylococcus aureus can present with vesicles and bullae due to staphylococcal exfoliative toxins (exfoliatin A-D) which cause separation at the superficial epidermal level.
Dental treatment of these patients is a great challenge to avoid new bullae formation, so they need special dental care by using soft dental brush, restoration of carious teeth and preventive treatment by frequent application of fluoride, also patients may need diet supplement as proteins, vitamins and iron to prevent anemia.
Facial edema, perioral or periocular crusting, and vesicles or bullae were seen in more than half of children.
Among cutaneous manifestations of diabetes mellitus, diabetic dermopathy, also named "shin spots" and diabetic bullae (bullosisdiabeticorum") are considered markers of diabetes or skin lesions with strong association.
Clinical evolution of bullous erythema nodosum leprosum: (a) Raised erythematous lesions on both arms and forearms (b) Central clearing in few lesions (c) Bullae developing on periphery of plaques (d) Well defined tense bullae on the underlying plaques.
In our case biopsy of the bullae reaveled a subepidermal bulla with inflammatory cell infiltration mainly by lymphocytes and eosinophils.
The wide geographical distribution of midday gerbils enabled us to investigate in the present study whether an association exists between the size of their auditory bullae and altitude.
1 These bullae arise as a result of disease processes like emphysema whereby areas of weakness develop within the lung and eventually reach a size at which they fill preferentially to the adjacent lung tissue.
The purpose of this publication is to create an inventory of the impressions of Near Eastern stamp seals on cuneiform tablets and clay bullae, and on pottery jar handles from Palestine, now in the collections of the British Museum.
Within this family, he mentioned three well differentiated groups according to the relative size of the tympanic cavity: i- species with no-evident hypertrophied bullae (mean bullar hypertrophy index between 4.