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a round metal seal made of lead, silver, or gold, which was usually used in the Middle Ages to fasten papal, imperial, and royal acts (documents) by being tied to the document by a string; the act itself, with the bulla tied to it, was also called a bulla. [In English the act is called a bull.] The most important royal and imperial decrees, fastened with golden seals, came to be called Golden Bulls (such as the Golden Bull of 1222, issued by the Hungarian King Andrew II, and the Golden Bull of 1356, issued by Charles IV of the Holy Roman Empire). In later centuries, up until modern times, the term “bulla” was used to designate only the most important acts issued by the popes of Rome.

The supplementary historical discipline known as sphragistics studies medieval bull seals.



A circular metal boss used by the ancient Romans as a decoration for fastening parts of doors; often highly ornamented.
References in periodicals archive ?
The bullous phase of the disease follows, being characterized by tense vesicles or bullae containing serous or blood-tinged fluid (4).
Histologically, subepidermal bullae are the characteristic pathological finding.
More widespread involvement with multiple bullae and ulcerations increases the mortality risk, necessitating immediate intervention (1).
The question, of course, remains as to what objects all these bullae and sealed clay lumps belonged, if they were not attached to private records.
If the bullae had once been attached to wooden writing boards, one also wonders whether all the wood of those documents would not have left behind some trace in the archaeological record.
These characters were total skull length, which correlated with basal length, greatest skull width, and length of mastoid bullae; greatest skull width, which correlated with width of mastoid bullae and length of mastoid bullae; and width of mastoid bullae, which correlated with length of mastoid bullae.
9 Width of Length of mastoid mastoid Width of Species bullae bullae supraoccipital agilis 2.
The fluid within the bullae is initially clear but may become hemorrhagic, turbid, or even seropurulent.
Approximately one-third of the recently recovered bullae bear the impressions of royal seals of the late Middle Kingdom and of the Empire (fourteenth-thirteenth centuries B.
Histologically, cicatricial pemphigoid is characterized by the formation of subepithelial bullae that contain lymphohistiocytic infiltrates and a small number of eosinophils.
Electron microscopy of cicatricial pemphigoid lesions typically shows that the bullae are located between the basal cell membrane and the basal lamina.