They quantitatively assessed: (1) diameter of the root; (2) thickness of the root epidermis; (3) count of cores of protoxylem; (4) diameter of the vascular cylinder of the root; (5) proportion of the stomata and (6) subsidiaries cells; (7) size of the bulliform
cells; (8) thickness of the foliar mesophyll; (9) thickness of the group of fibers of the abaxial and adaxial foliar rib; (10) diameter of the central vascular bundle of the foliar blade.
Upon exposure to low temperatures, mesophyll cells in the phyllode of Acacia melanoxylon shrank and the intercellular spaces increased with decreasing temperature, due to apparent freezing of the bulliform
cells (Ruan et al., 2011).
The rice leaf rolls when the specialized bulliform
cells of the upper epidermis experience water loss , causing them to lose their turgor .
The image-processing system Image Pro Plus 5.0 software, calibrated to 1mm [pixel.sup.-1], was used to quantify the tissues according the cell wall nature (ALVES DE BRITO et al., 1999): a) epidermis, except trichomes and bulliform
cells; b) lignified vascular tissue + sclerenchyma (LVT+S), including xylem, fiber, sclerenchymatic sheath and other cells with lignified wall cell that had present in vascular bundles; c) non-lignified vascular tissue (NLVT), including phloem and other cells in the bundles that presented cellulosic cell wall; d) parenchyma, including bulliform
cells and bundle vascular parenchymatic sheath.
Some of these places are the sheets of polyhedral and jigsaw-shaped epidermal cells that cover the surfaces of tree leaves and layers of bulliform
(also called motor) cells that lie primarily on the upper surface of grass leaves and provide places for water storage when they are not silicified [27, 28].
Plasticity can be expressed by morphological, physiological, or biochemical changes, and can affect structural characteristics as well as the proportions of different plant tissues (notably in leaves), including: mesophyll and cell wall thicknesses, number of vascular bundles and bulliform
cells, distance between vascular bundles, thickness of abaxial and adaxial epidermal surfaces, and stomatal density.
cells lose water rapidly during periods of stress and cause the leaf to curve upward, eventually rolling up as the wilting process progresses and thus helps the plant to conserve water.
induced by water loss from specialized bulliform
cells of the leaf upper
Juvenile leaves lack bulliform
cells and trichomes, have a thin cuticle, and are covered with epicuticular wax.
(2007), reporting the variation of proportions of chlorophyll parenchyma and the volume of bulliform
The distribution pattern of bulliform
cells proved to be helpful in the differentiation among Cenchrus species.