Cuticle (Cu), epidermis (Ep), stomata (St), bulliform cell
(BC), mesophyll (Me), sheath of the vascular bundle (SVB), sclerenchymatic fibers (SF), parenchyma of filling (PF), and vascular bundle (VB).
In fact, an excess supply of water in the growing environment and submergence of root systems are directly linked to increased bulliform cell
The bulliform cell
clusters showed very similar characteristics among the cultivars, as described for the genre and also for other genera of grasses such as Cynodon and Paspalum (Metcalfe and Chalk, 1960; Eichemberg, 2012).
Upon exposure to low temperatures, mesophyll cells in the phyllode of Acacia melanoxylon shrank and the intercellular spaces increased with decreasing temperature, due to apparent freezing of the bulliform cells
(Ruan et al., 2011).
The rice leaf rolls when the specialized bulliform cells
of the upper epidermis experience water loss , causing them to lose their turgor .
The image-processing system Image Pro Plus 5.0 software, calibrated to 1mm [pixel.sup.-1], was used to quantify the tissues according the cell wall nature (ALVES DE BRITO et al., 1999): a) epidermis, except trichomes and bulliform cells
; b) lignified vascular tissue + sclerenchyma (LVT+S), including xylem, fiber, sclerenchymatic sheath and other cells with lignified wall cell that had present in vascular bundles; c) non-lignified vascular tissue (NLVT), including phloem and other cells in the bundles that presented cellulosic cell wall; d) parenchyma, including bulliform cells
and bundle vascular parenchymatic sheath.
Plasticity can be expressed by morphological, physiological, or biochemical changes, and can affect structural characteristics as well as the proportions of different plant tissues (notably in leaves), including: mesophyll and cell wall thicknesses, number of vascular bundles and bulliform cells
, distance between vascular bundles, thickness of abaxial and adaxial epidermal surfaces, and stomatal density.
Close to the midrib in the mid-region of the leaf and facing the adaxial surface, bulliform cells
formed groups of approximately five cells with silicon deposits close to the cell walls (Figure 3).
These bulliform cells
lose water rapidly during periods of stress and cause the leaf to curve upward, eventually rolling up as the wilting process progresses and thus helps the plant to conserve water.
induced by water loss from specialized bulliform cells
of the leaf upper
Juvenile leaves lack bulliform cells
and trichomes, have a thin cuticle, and are covered with epicuticular wax.
The distribution pattern of bulliform cells
proved to be helpful in the differentiation among Cenchrus species.