The bulliform cell
clusters showed very similar characteristics among the cultivars, as described for the genre and also for other genera of grasses such as Cynodon and Paspalum (Metcalfe and Chalk, 1960; Eichemberg, 2012).
area can be used as indicator of adaptability to cultivation in environments with water deficits (or high environmental temperatures) because these cells are involved in leaf curling that diminishes the leaf surface area (and thus water loss through transpiration)--and the larger the area occupied by bulliform cells
, the better the response of the genotype to dry/hot environmental conditions.
Enlarged bulliform cell
are very crucial under moisture limited environments as these are responsible for
Upon exposure to low temperatures, mesophyll cells in the phyllode of Acacia melanoxylon shrank and the intercellular spaces increased with decreasing temperature, due to apparent freezing of the bulliform cells
(Ruan et al.
The rice leaf rolls when the specialized bulliform cells
of the upper epidermis experience water loss , causing them to lose their turgor .
1999): a) epidermis, except trichomes and bulliform cells
; b) lignified vascular tissue + sclerenchyma (LVT+S), including xylem, fiber, sclerenchymatic sheath and other cells with lignified wall cell that had present in vascular bundles; c) non-lignified vascular tissue (NLVT), including phloem and other cells in the bundles that presented cellulosic cell wall; d) parenchyma, including bulliform cells
and bundle vascular parenchymatic sheath.
The bulliform cells
in the leaves mid-region were had reduced diameters and showed evidence of cell collapse.
These bulliform cells
lose water rapidly during periods of stress and cause the leaf to curve upward, eventually rolling up as the wilting process progresses and thus helps the plant to conserve water.
induced by water loss from specialized bulliform cells
of the leaf upper
Juvenile leaves lack bulliform cells
and trichomes, have a thin cuticle, and are covered with epicuticular wax.
occur as part of the adaxial epidermis (Figures 2D-M) and form a fan-shaped array in the woody bamboos, (e.
In periods of water stress, the bulliform cells
lose their stored water, causing the grass leaf to roll up edge-to-edge, limiting further water loss from the upper epidermis.