Bund

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bund

[bənd]
(civil engineering)
An embankment or embanked thoroughfare along a body of water; the term is used particularly for such structures in the Far East.
McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific & Technical Terms, 6E, Copyright © 2003 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.

Bund

 

(Yiddish, “union”), a petit-bourgeois nationalist organization composed mainly of Jewish artisans from the western oblasts of Russia. It was called the General Union of Jewish Workers in Lithuania, Poland, and Russia. It was formed in September 1897 at the founding congress of the Jewish social democratic groups in Vil’na. In the beginning it conducted socialist propaganda but, in the course of the struggle for the abolition of the discriminatory laws against Jews, it slipped to positions of nationalism. In 1898, at the First Congress of the RSDLP, the Bund joined the party as an autonomous organization, which was independent only in matters relating specifically to the Jewish proletariat. From 1901 on, it was the advocate of nationalism and separatism in the Russian labor movement, adopted opportunistic positions, supported the Economists and Mensheviks, and fought against Bolshevism. In 1901 the Bund began publishing an information leaflet abroad, Poslednie izvestiia (The Latest News, 256 issues were published before January 1906). The central printed organs were Arberter Shtimme (The Worker’s Voice, published clandestinely in Russia) and Yiddisher Arberter (The Jewish Worker, published in Geneva by the Bund’s foreign committee). From December 1905 the Bund had legal publications in Russia. The Fourth Congress of the Bund (April 1901) demanded a reorganization of the RSDLP on federal principles. The opportunistic position and the nationalist tendencies of the Bund were sharply criticized by V. I. Lenin and the editors of Iskra (nos. 7 and 8). At the Second Congress of the RSDLP (1903), the Bundists fought for the federal principle in party organization, that is, the division of the party according to nationality. The Bund demanded to be recognized as the sole representative of the Jewish workers in the RSDLP. When the Bund’s claims were rejected, it left the RSDLP and allied itself with the Zionist movement of Poale Zion. V. I. Lenin, in the article “Does the Jewish Proletariat Need an ’Independent Political Party’ ” (1903), resolutely unmasked the harm of the nationalism preached by the Bund (see Poln. sobr. soch., 5th ed., vol. 7, pp. 117-22).

Under the impact of the general revolutionary upheaval, the Bund rejoined the RSDLP at the Fourth Congress of the RSDLP (the Unity Congress, 1906), but it adopted Men-shevik positions on all questions and did not fulfill the decision of the congress to unite social democrats in the provinces into single organizations. To the demand of the Bolshevik program on the right of nations to self-determination, the Bund opposed the demand (at the Sixth Congress of the Bund in 1905) of national cultural autonomy, which contributed to disunity among the forces of the proletariat. In the years of the Stolypin reaction, the Bund supported the liquidators and L. D. Trotsky. The Sixth (Prague) All-Russian Conference of the RSDLP (1912) expelled the Bundists from the party, along with other opportunists. During World War I (1914-18), the Bund adopted social chauvinistic positions. After the February Revolution of 1917, the Bundists joined the Mensheviks, supported the counterrevolutionary Provisional Government, and fought against the Bolshevik policy of transition to the socialist revolution. During the October Revolution the Bundists demanded the formation of a coalition government and, in December 1917, at their eighth congress, drew up tactics for fighting against the Soviet republic. While the leaders of the Bund (R. A. Abramovich, I. L. Eisenstadt) emigrated abroad and conducted anti-Soviet activity, a change of attitude toward a collaboration with the Soviet regime took place among the rank and file Bund members. In 1920, at their 12th conference in Moscow, the Bundists recognized the need for giving up the opposition tactics toward the Soviet regime. In March 1921, at their 13th conference in Minsk, the Bundists, despite the position of the right wing, adopted the decision of joining the RCP (Bolshevik) on the conditions proposed to them, that is, on general principles, which led to the self-liquidation of the Bund.

REFERENCES

Lenin, V. I. Poln. sobr. soch., 5th ed. (See reference volume, part 1, pp. 52-53.)
KPSS v rezoliutsiiakh i resheniiakh s” ezdov, konferentsii i plenumov TsK, 7th ed., part 1. Moscow, 1954. Pages 47, 58, 113, 119, 132, 134, 270.

S. V. SHEPROV

The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.

bund

A continuous, low wall or embankment along a body of water.
McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Architecture and Construction. Copyright © 2003 by McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
References in periodicals archive ?
Furious argument erupted when a Bundist delegate defined the obshchina as a cultural but not religious institution.
Jacob Pat, a Bundist who had arrived from Poland before the start of the war, became secretary-general of the Jewish Labor Committee and played a prominent role in organizing many of the large-scale demonstrations in New York in the year after the revolt.
After 1948, the assumption that Zionism was about more than "there," in contrast to the Bundist mantra of "hereness" (doikeyt), became harder to accept.
(38) Moisei Rafes (1883-1942) had written histories of the Bundist movement and was an active Bundist representative in the Ukrainian People's Republic.
The Bundists were strongly Marxist secular Jews who had no intention of leaving Poland, but were very keen to change Poland and its culture.
In offering this criticism, I am not ruling out the possibility of an authentic Jewish anti-Zionist group based on traditional Bundist principles.
(9) While this name, promoted by the Bundist delegates and accepted by the others only after some debate, recognized the party's multinational character, some years later Stalin would lay claim to it as an attempt by the ethnic-Russian socialists "to break down the national barriers," that is, as a manifestation of the ethnic Russian social-democrats' generosity.
Some of them had drifted away, but certain "administrative-moral" pressures for Russification were exerted on Jews and other nationalities causing "much suffering and tragedy." Demands that the USSR "return to the national policy" of Lenin was not anti-socialist; nor was it Bundist, as Walsh alleged.
The initial enthusiasm of Magnes, Pine, Schlossberg, and others for the Labor Zionist projects foundered when the Bundist leader Vladimir Medem publicly attacked Shohat and the Histadrut delegation in the leading Yiddish daily Der forverts (The Forward) in December 1921.
The Meyer family of Kishinev is a microcosm of late 19th-century Ashkenazy life, atomized by increasing oppression and the corresponding social movements--Zionist, Bundist, emigrationist--of the time.
These survivors were mainly veterans of the Jewish labor movement in Poland, and the organization was Bundist in orientation, with many of the leaders also serving as functionaries of the newly-constituted Jewish Labor Bund in New York, as well as other Yiddish-oriented, social-democratic institutions.
Several of the announced speakers attended Camp Hemshekh (1959-1978) in the New York Catskills, described by Yiddish teacher Paula Teitelbaum as "founded by committed Bundist Holocaust survivors to share their ideals of democratic socialism and of promoting the Yiddish language and culture with American Jewish children." Others, including Jack Jacobs, Irena Klepfisz, Zalmen Mlotek, Avram Patt, and Alex Weiser are scholars focused on Bundism and left politics, teach Yiddish, and use Yiddish in their creative work.