Bund

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bund

[bənd]
(civil engineering)
An embankment or embanked thoroughfare along a body of water; the term is used particularly for such structures in the Far East.

Bund

 

(Yiddish, “union”), a petit-bourgeois nationalist organization composed mainly of Jewish artisans from the western oblasts of Russia. It was called the General Union of Jewish Workers in Lithuania, Poland, and Russia. It was formed in September 1897 at the founding congress of the Jewish social democratic groups in Vil’na. In the beginning it conducted socialist propaganda but, in the course of the struggle for the abolition of the discriminatory laws against Jews, it slipped to positions of nationalism. In 1898, at the First Congress of the RSDLP, the Bund joined the party as an autonomous organization, which was independent only in matters relating specifically to the Jewish proletariat. From 1901 on, it was the advocate of nationalism and separatism in the Russian labor movement, adopted opportunistic positions, supported the Economists and Mensheviks, and fought against Bolshevism. In 1901 the Bund began publishing an information leaflet abroad, Poslednie izvestiia (The Latest News, 256 issues were published before January 1906). The central printed organs were Arberter Shtimme (The Worker’s Voice, published clandestinely in Russia) and Yiddisher Arberter (The Jewish Worker, published in Geneva by the Bund’s foreign committee). From December 1905 the Bund had legal publications in Russia. The Fourth Congress of the Bund (April 1901) demanded a reorganization of the RSDLP on federal principles. The opportunistic position and the nationalist tendencies of the Bund were sharply criticized by V. I. Lenin and the editors of Iskra (nos. 7 and 8). At the Second Congress of the RSDLP (1903), the Bundists fought for the federal principle in party organization, that is, the division of the party according to nationality. The Bund demanded to be recognized as the sole representative of the Jewish workers in the RSDLP. When the Bund’s claims were rejected, it left the RSDLP and allied itself with the Zionist movement of Poale Zion. V. I. Lenin, in the article “Does the Jewish Proletariat Need an ’Independent Political Party’ ” (1903), resolutely unmasked the harm of the nationalism preached by the Bund (see Poln. sobr. soch., 5th ed., vol. 7, pp. 117-22).

Under the impact of the general revolutionary upheaval, the Bund rejoined the RSDLP at the Fourth Congress of the RSDLP (the Unity Congress, 1906), but it adopted Men-shevik positions on all questions and did not fulfill the decision of the congress to unite social democrats in the provinces into single organizations. To the demand of the Bolshevik program on the right of nations to self-determination, the Bund opposed the demand (at the Sixth Congress of the Bund in 1905) of national cultural autonomy, which contributed to disunity among the forces of the proletariat. In the years of the Stolypin reaction, the Bund supported the liquidators and L. D. Trotsky. The Sixth (Prague) All-Russian Conference of the RSDLP (1912) expelled the Bundists from the party, along with other opportunists. During World War I (1914-18), the Bund adopted social chauvinistic positions. After the February Revolution of 1917, the Bundists joined the Mensheviks, supported the counterrevolutionary Provisional Government, and fought against the Bolshevik policy of transition to the socialist revolution. During the October Revolution the Bundists demanded the formation of a coalition government and, in December 1917, at their eighth congress, drew up tactics for fighting against the Soviet republic. While the leaders of the Bund (R. A. Abramovich, I. L. Eisenstadt) emigrated abroad and conducted anti-Soviet activity, a change of attitude toward a collaboration with the Soviet regime took place among the rank and file Bund members. In 1920, at their 12th conference in Moscow, the Bundists recognized the need for giving up the opposition tactics toward the Soviet regime. In March 1921, at their 13th conference in Minsk, the Bundists, despite the position of the right wing, adopted the decision of joining the RCP (Bolshevik) on the conditions proposed to them, that is, on general principles, which led to the self-liquidation of the Bund.

REFERENCES

Lenin, V. I. Poln. sobr. soch., 5th ed. (See reference volume, part 1, pp. 52-53.)
KPSS v rezoliutsiiakh i resheniiakh s” ezdov, konferentsii i plenumov TsK, 7th ed., part 1. Moscow, 1954. Pages 47, 58, 113, 119, 132, 134, 270.

S. V. SHEPROV

bund

A continuous, low wall or embankment along a body of water.
References in periodicals archive ?
The irrigation department has built loop bunds across the province to fortify the front bund of Indus river so that the bunds contain floodwater in case of a breach in the front embankment.
LARKANA -- Deputy Commissioner Larkana Kahsif Ali Tipu along-with officials of Irrigation and Revenue Departments visited the Moria Loop Bund and Aakil-Aagani bund here on Monday and reviewed the flood fighting arrangements made by Irrigation department and District Administration.
He expanded on that comment in an interview with Bloomberg TV, suggesting investors wait another 12 to 18 months when quantitative easing ends in the eurozone before shorting the bund.
Another breach took place in Pana-Baghar Bund opposite Faqir Goth near Thatta in the August 24-25 night, but was plugged promptly by a ring bund on riverside.
Bund Water Control Units assist companies in meeting environmental regulations including ISO 14001, PPG8: Safe Storage and disposal of used oils, PPG2: Above Ground Oil Storage Tanks and the Control of Major Accident Hazards Regulations 1999.
German Bund futures opened lower on Monday as investors booked profits after last week's record highs and turned wary ahead of euro zone Purchasing Managers' Index data and Belgian debt supply this session.
The firm's customers outside of Germany who until now have incurred costly clearing fees to access German debt and equity markets can, when executing trades through Cantor Fitzgerald, realize savings of up to 300 DM per ten million German bunds and up to 2,000 DM per ten million shares of stock.
The Secretary directed the officers of Irrigation Department of the both districts to fulfil their responsibilities, redouble their efforts and strengthen the sensitive points along both sides of protective bunds on River Indus in their respective districts.
He said flood affectees will be duly taken care of and protection of the Bunds is among top priorities of the PPP.
Tenders are invited for Wateh & ward of bund and supply of wireless operator in rainy season year 2014-15 of bunds jamwramgarh and amcr section, supply of wireless operator at nahargarh wireless station year 2014-15, supply of gauge reade icmprary rain gauge station in ramgarh dam calchmcnl area for the year 2014-15, urgent repair and watch and ward of bunds in rainy season for the year 201-1-15 section, urgent repair and watch and ward of bunds in rain) season for the year 2014-i- section Phaei
A senior official of the flood control department said the 10 bunds -- measuring between 203.
German Bunds opened little changed on Tuesday ahead of the U.