Burial Ground


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burial ground

[′ber·ē·əl ‚grau̇nd]
(nucleonics)
A place for burying unwanted radioactive objects to prevent escape of their radiations, the earth acting as a shield. Also known as graveyard.

Burial Ground

 

in archaeology, a place for the burial of the dead. Ancient Greek and Roman burial grounds are usually called necropolises, and Christian and Moslem places of burial, cemeteries. The first burials of the dead appeared in the Paleolithic period; however, at that time, they were performed directly at the habitation sites rather than in places set aside for that purpose.

Actual burial grounds appeared in the Mesolithic. Burials were performed according to established funerary rites, which were connected with the culture’s conception of the afterlife. Various objects (“grave goods”) were placed in the grave with the deceased; such as clothing, weapons, ornaments, household vessels and utensils, food, and the carcasses of sacrificed animals. Sometimes, persons dependent on the deceased were sacrificed and buried in the same grave with the deceased (for example, at Kul’-Oba and in the Melitopol’ Kurgan).

Two types of burials are distinguished in burial grounds: inhumation and cremation. In the latter the deceased was burned and the ashes then buried. The burial structures that were used at different times by different tribes and peoples are infinitely varied, for example, simple earthen pits, pits lined with wood or stone, catacombs, vaults, and huge burial structures, such as pyramids and mausoleums. The dead or their ashes were buried in vessels (urns), cists, or wooden frames. According to external appearance, burial grounds are usually divided into barrow burial grounds, which are marked by mounds of earth or stone, or flat-grave burial grounds (without mounds). Burial grounds with both barrows and flat graves are also encountered.

The archaeological study of a burial ground yields a wealth of material not only about an ancient population’s religious beliefs but also about other aspects of its life, including the material culture, everyday life, the economy, production and trade, family and social relationships, and art. In addition, excavations of burial grounds supply material for paleoanthropology and provide museums with ancient fully preserved objects, which are seldom encountered in investigations of settlements.

D. B. SHELOV

Burial Ground

Aceldama
potter’s field; burial place for strangers. [N. T.: Matthew 27:6–10, Acts 1:18–19]
Alloway graveyard
where Tam O’Shanter saw witches dancing among opened coffins. [Br. Lit.: Burns Tam O’Shanter in Benét, 985]
Arlington National Cemetery
final resting place for America’s war heroes. [Am. Hist.: Flexner, 95]
Boot Hill
Tombstone, Arizona’s graveyard, where gunfighters are buried. [Am. Hist.: Flexner, 178]
Campo Santo
famous cemetery in Pisa, with Gothic arcades and Renaissance frescoes. [Ital. Hist.: Collier’s, XV, 433]
Castel Sant’Angelo
built in Rome by Hadrian as an imperial mausoleum. [Rom. Hist.: Collier’s, XVI, 539]
Catacombs of St. Calixtus
in Rome, one of the largest of subterranean burial places, with eleven miles of galleries. [Ital. Hist.: Collier’s, IV, 458]
Escorial
former monastery in central Spain; mausoleum of Spanish sovereigns. [Span. Hist.: NCE, 890]
Flanders Field
immortalized in poem; cemetery for WWI dead. [Eur. Hist.: Jameson, 176]
Gettysburg
site of Civil War battle; cemetery for war dead. [Am. Culture: EB, IV: 515]
God’s Acre
Moravian graveyard in Winston-Salem, N.C., with 3,000 identical marble markers. [Am. Hist.: Collier’s, XIX, 471]
Grant’s Tomb
New York City burial place of General Ulysses S. Grant. [Am. Culture: EB, IV: 680]
Great Pyramid of Cheops
enormous Egyptian royal tomb. [World Hist.: Wallechinsky, 255]
Holy Sepulcher Jerusalem
cave where body of Jesus is said to have lain. [Christ. Tradition: Brewer Dictionary, 814]
Machpelah
cave where Abraham, Sarah, Isaac, Jacob are buried. [O.T.: Genesis 23:19, 25:9, 49:30, 50:13]
potter’s field
burial ground purchased with Judas’s betrayal money. [N.T.: Matthew 27:6–8]
Stoke Poges
village whose churchyard is thought to be the scene of Gray’s “Elegy.” [Br. Lit.: Benét, 966]
Taj Mahal
fabulous tomb built by Shah Jahan for wife. [Ind. Hist.: Wallechinsky, 317]
Tomb of Mausolus
Queen Artemisia’s spectacular memorial to husband. [World Hist.: Wallechinsky, 256]
Tomb of the Unknowns
in Arlington National Cemetery; commemorates nameless war dead. [Am. Hist.: Brewer Dictionary, 1118]
Westminster Abbey
abbey filled with tombs and memorials of famous British subjects. [Br. Hist.: EB, X: 632–633]
References in periodicals archive ?
Undisturbed grassland found in burial grounds is often rich in wildflowers and meadow grasses, which support wildlife ranging from frogs to butterflies and voles.
The CCP Commissioner, Ajit Roy, said that they had received complaints of prayers being performed on loudspeakers in the burial ground.
The burial ground probably started in use during the medieval period and continued into the post-medieval period.
The site's use as a burial ground goes back to the fur trade, when the Metis emerged as a distinct group descended from local Indigenous nations and French and Scottish fur traders, said Huskins.
Formed in 2009, the Harlem African Burial Ground Task Force is dedicated to preserving the history of the Harlem African Burial Ground and creating a permanent memorial.
From 1954-63, large cask trucks, heavily shielded to provide protection from radiation, carried highly radioactive laboratory waste to the 618-10 Burial Ground about six miles north of Richland along the main highway to the Hanford Wye Barricade.
He said: "The two pieces of land in question were bought separately to the burial ground by the church in the early 1900s.
The application to exhume the human remains from the burial ground was initially advertised in the public notices section of a local newspaper under the Disused Burial Grounds (Amendment) Act of 1981.
It will also highlight the preservation of historical information on the gravestones, family/town relationships, and a survey of the Old Burial Ground gravestones where many of the first settlers of Boylston are buried.
Head of Sweida Archeology Department Hussein Zein-Eddin told SANA that the uncovered burial ground, which is located to the south of Tal Dubat Breikieh, contains two skeletons, one of which is whole.
When rumours emerge of his plans to deconsecrate the burial ground and turn it into a car park, a body appears by the bridge.
Planners are now deciding whether to gbB give permission for the new burial ground in Sutton Bridge, Lincs.