Off-site disposal costs were minimised by recycling demolition waste to produce an engineered fill, burnt shale
was used beneath areas of soft landscaping/leisure use and ground improvement techniques used to produce a stable platform for construction.
Kikas and coworkers  studying the influence of OSA on the properties of self-stressing shale ash cement concluded that the concrete made with burnt shale
possesses high strength, high frost resistance, and low permeability.
This is the optimum temperature to achieve the best properties of the burnt shale, that means especially the maximum strength.
It gives the burnt shale an S[O.sub.3] content of 10 %.
From 1 t of oil shale 0.71 t of hydraulic burnt shale as a valuable intermediate product for cement and binder production is formed.
The quality of the burnt shale from the fluidized-bed units corresponds to the European cement standard EN 197-1.
The amount of burnt shale in the cement is limited by the 35 % of the standard or by the S[O.sub.3] content of the cement, which is limited to 4.5 %.
It is the cement mill where the two process lines come together: clinker from the rotary kiln and burnt shale from the fluidized-bed units meet in the cement mill to be ground to Portland-burnt shale cement.