On the whole, dietary supplementation with graded levels of 1,3-DAG in broilers diets improved the growth performance and the weight of bursa of Fabricius
, and showed partial positive effects on serum HDL concentration and drop loss of breast muscle.
The hens' primary lymphoid tissue includes the thymus and bursa of fabricius
(BOEHM et al., 2012).
Bursa of Fabricius
. It was as follows: 0 = normal; 1 = scattered follicles with mild necrosis; 2 = follicles suffering from moderate and generalized lymphoid depletion or even sometimes severe lymphoid depletion; 3 = over 50% of follicles suffering from severe lymphoid depletion; 4 = cysts in the follicles with scattered lymphocytes, increase in the size of connective tissue, thickening and folded epithelium; 5 = complete disruption of the follicular physique and increase in fibroplasia.
In contrast, inoculated birds that were euthanized at 2 DPI (2 birds) or 4 DPI (4 birds) and 2 of 3 birds euthanized at 7 DPI had marked lymphoid depletion in spleen, thymus, and bursa of Fabricius
. Immunohistochemical stains confirmed the presence of WFBV in thymus and spleen but not in the bursa of Fabricius
(Figure 2) The severity of lymphoid depletion was scored as marked if spleen, thymus, and bursa of Fabricius
all showed an estimated [greater than or equal to]75% decrease in expected numbers of lymphocytes, moderate if severity of depletion varied between lymphoid organs but was estimated as a [greater than or equal to]50% decrease in lymphocytes, and mild if some lymphoid organs showed very little depletion whereas others showed moderate depletion (Table 2).
Bursa of Fabricius
tissues were processed, sectioned and stained with Hematoxylin and Eosin in Histopathology lab of Department of Pathology, University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Lahore, Pakistan.
Two sRNA libraries (bursa of Fabricius
in JCH and NH-P) were constructed using Small RNA Sample Pre Kit (Illumina, San Diego, CA, USA) following the manufacturers instructions.
In gosling, goose IFITM1 was highly expressed in the cecum, moderately expressed in the lung, bursa of Fabricius
, trachea and cecal tonsil, and minimally expressed in the rest of the tissues.
The agar gel precipitation test (AGPT) detects viral antigen in the bursa of Fabricius
in the early stages of the infection before the development of an antibody response .
The serum IgG, immune system lymphoid weight, bursa of Fabricius
, thymus, and spleen weight are shown in the Table 3.
The primary role of the avian bursa of Fabricius
is to provide an essential microenvironment for B-lymphocytes to diversify their immunoglobulin genes by gene hyperconversion .
Studies on the pathogenesis of Gumboro disease in the bursa of Fabricius
, spleen and thymus of the chicken.
The prediction under test in this paper is thus that the size of the bursa of Fabricius
and the spleen is larger in hole-nesting and colonially breeding birds than in closely related species being open nesters or solitary breeders.