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(cow butter), a food product; a concentrate of butterfat (78-82.5 percent, depending on the type; in clarified butter, about 99 percent).
Butterfat has distinctive valuable biological qualities and flavor. It contains an optimally balanced complex of fatty acids and a considerable quantity of phosphatides and fat-soluble vitamins. It has a low melting point (32°-35°C) and is easily assimilated by the body (up to 95 percent). It also contains the proteins, carbohydrates, water-soluble vitamins, minerals, and water of milk (this, the nonfat part of butter, is called the plasma). As a whole, butter is highly assimilable and has a high caloric value. Specifically, the caloric value of Vologda butter is 730 kilocalories per 100 g, or 3.06 megajoules per 100 g. Creamery butter is a practical source of vitamin A (an average 0.6 milligram percent [mg percent]). Grass (summer) butter also contains 0.17-0.56 mg percent carotene. Creamery butter contains vitamin D (in summer butter, 0.002-0.008 mg percent; in hay, or winter, butter, 0.001-0.002 mg percent). Butter contains 2-5 mg percent tocopherols and is an important source of phosphatides (up to 400 mg percent).
The butters produced in the USSR include creamery butter (salted, unsalted, Vologda, Liubitel’skoe, and butter with additives), canned butter, and clarified butter. Unsalted, salted, and Liubitel’skoe butters are produced either from fresh cream (sweet butters) or, to add a special flavor and aroma, from fermented lactic acid stock (cultured butters).
The main types of butter produced in the USSR are the sweet butters, for which cream is pasteurized at 85°-90°C. Vologda butter is made from fresh cream pasteurized at 97°-98°C. Liubitel’skoe butter has a higher water content than other creamery butters (20 percent; in other butters, 16 percent; in clarified butter, 1 percent) and a higher content of certain nonfat substances. Butters with additives are made from fresh cream with flavor supplements and aromatic substances added, such as cocoa, vanilla, and sugar (chocolate butter); natural fruit and berry juices and sugar (fruit butter); and honey (honey butter). Canned butter is produced by the special processing of creamery butter or fresh high-fat cream. Clarified butter is butterfat that has been clarified from creamery butter and that has had the impurities removed. Creamery butter is produced basically by two methods: by churning 30-45-percent creams and by converting high-fat creams.
The quality of butter is judged on the basis of composition and organoleptic indexes (taste and consistency). The evaluation of organoleptic indexes is done on a 100-point system. Depending on the number of points, the butter is classified as top or prime grade.
Some countries produce not only cow butter but also butter made from yaks’ milk (the Mongolian People’s Republic) or zebu milk (India, Africa).
REFERENCESSink, V. I. Proizvodstvo masla. Moscow, 1969.
Spravochnik po molochnomu delu. Moscow, 1968.
V. P. ARISTOVA