acid (dimethylarsinic acid--pentavalent) was not cytotoxic at levels < 400 [micro]M (data not shown).
1996), woodworkers (McCunney 1999), and those with exposure to the herbicides 2,4-D (2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid), 2,4,5-T (2,4,5-trichlorophenoxyacetic acid) and its contaminant TCDD, cacodylic
acid, and picloram (Dich et al.
Four arsenic standards were purchased, including sodium arsenate (AsV; Pfaltz & Bauer Inc., Waterbury, CT), arsenious oxide (AsIII; 99.999% purity; GFS Chemical Inc., Powell, OH), MMA (97% purity; Chem Service, West Chester, PA), and cacodylic
acid (DMA; 99% purity; Pfaltz & Bauer, Inc.).
Key words: Agent Orange, cacodylic
acid, defoliants, 2,4-dichlorophenoxy acetic acid, exposure opportunity, geographic information system, GIS, herbicides, military, picloram, 2,4,5-trichlorophenoxy acetic acid, Vietnam.
Bioassays have been reported that show DMAA (cacodylic
acid), typical of organic arsenicals, induced cancer of the urinary bladder in rodents, a site concordant with that seen in humans (28), and DMAA also promoted tumors of the urinary bladder as well as of several other organs: kidney, lung, liver, skin (fibrosarcomas), and thyroid glands in rats (30-33).