It also said the FAO's work in the country started in the late-1950s with a research program in marine fisheries biology, followed by 'several emergency response efforts, including controlling a coconut disease called cadang-cadang
, which had already decimated some 10 million trees, and the livelihood recovery assistance in Mindanao after the catastrophic Moro Gulf earthquake and tsunami in 1976.
For example, the spread of lethal yellowing, caused by phytoplasm Candidatus or Cadang-Cadang
, which is transmitted by the virus Coconut Cadang Cadang viroid-CCCV d, shows that caution is required when moving coconut plant material (HARRISON & ELLIOTT, 2012; CUETO et al.
This current review attempts to prevent interest in other subjects from eclipsing interest in cadang-cadang.
Disappointingly, the water-soaked spots are not unique to coconuts affected by cadang-cadang.
Moreover, there is no general agreement on the characteristic of the water-soaked spot; thus Nagaraj (1967) enumerated many kinds of water-soaked spots, even among plants outside the cadang-cadang area, which differ from each other only in their measurement.
Some of the major theories on the probable cause of cadang-cadang were (1) virus, (2) soil or nutritional imbalance, (3) physical stress such as typhoons, (4) microorganisms such as fungi, bacteria, and nematodes, (5) phytotoximia due to secretions of aphids or Marasmius sp.
Moreover, Maramoroseh (1961) mentioned the belief of farmers that typhoon, eruption of Mayon Volcano, and introduction of cattle herd to coconut groves as contributing factors in the spread of cadang-cadang.
The course of spread was traced by Celino (1947), as follows: "The cadang-cadang disease was first observed in 1928 just outside the Estate of the Agusan Coconut Company (now Gancayno Estate) on San Miguel Island, Tobacco, Albay.
Zelasny (1979) made another geographical survey, especially in the border areas of cadang-cadang occurrence such as Quezon, Camarines Norte, Western Samar, Eastern Samar, and Leyte.
1960) and Fajardo (1953) were compared with the present distribution of cadang-cadang, it became clear that the area containing the disease has not increased significantly during the last 20 to 30 years.