In the last decades, with the expansion of coconut areas, limitations inherent to the occurrence of pests, mainly lethal yellowing and cadang-cadang diseases, unevenness of crops, adaptation to different ecosystems, among others, have affected the production and longevity of coconut trees.
the most noteworthy are: lethal yellowing, cadang-cadang and the Coleoptera Rhynchophorus ferrugineus (Linnaeus) as absent quarantine pests; red palm mite Raoiella indica a present quarantine pest; and the coconut mite Aceria guerreronis, the coconut transparent mealybug Aspidiotus destructor and the whitefly Aleurodicuspseudugesii, pests with great potential for dispersion and largely distributed in several growing regions worldwide.
The cadang-cadang disease is also lethal to the coconut tree and has the coconut cadang-cadang-viroid (CCCVd) as etiologic agent.
Coconut cadang-cadang disease and its viroid agent.
Detection of coconut cadang-cadang viroid-like sequences in oil and coconut palm and other monocotyledons in the South-west Pacific.
It also said the FAO's work in the country started in the late-1950s with a research program in marine fisheries biology, followed by 'several emergency response efforts, including controlling a coconut disease called cadang-cadang
, which had already decimated some 10 million trees, and the livelihood recovery assistance in Mindanao after the catastrophic Moro Gulf earthquake and tsunami in 1976.'
For example, the spread of lethal yellowing, caused by phytoplasm Candidatus or Cadang-Cadang
, which is transmitted by the virus Coconut Cadang Cadang viroid-CCCV d, shows that caution is required when moving coconut plant material (HARRISON & ELLIOTT, 2012; CUETO et al., 2012).
Phytophagous insects associated with cadang-cadang
infected and healthy coconut palms in south-eastern Luzon, Philippines.
This current review attempts to prevent interest in other subjects from eclipsing interest in cadang-cadang.
Disappointingly, the water-soaked spots are not unique to coconuts affected by cadang-cadang. Earlier, Velasco and Fertig (1956) observed water-soaked spots in their coconut seedlings not affected by cadang-cadang.
Moreover, there is no general agreement on the characteristic of the water-soaked spot; thus Nagaraj (1967) enumerated many kinds of water-soaked spots, even among plants outside the cadang-cadang area, which differ from each other only in their measurement.
Some of the major theories on the probable cause of cadang-cadang were (1) virus, (2) soil or nutritional imbalance, (3) physical stress such as typhoons, (4) microorganisms such as fungi, bacteria, and nematodes, (5) phytotoximia due to secretions of aphids or Marasmius sp., and (6) mycoplasma-like organisms.