There are two possible mechanisms which may control the sequential appearance of lysine decarboxylase: (i) Repression of lysine decarboxylase requires a high concentration of an intracellular metabolite (cadaverine
) and depression may set in immediately after the rapidly metabolizable carbon sources have been used up.
A lot of studies on biogenic amines such as histamine, tyramine, cadaverine
, and putrescine as fish spoilage indicator have been recorded beforehand [22-26].
According to the effective concentration ranges, the studied amines formed two clearly distinguishable groups--primary amines (cadaverine
, 1,7-diaminoheptane, histamine, and dopamine) and secondary plus tertiary amines (Table 1).
, histamine, serotonin, and tyramine were not detected in any sample.
Biogenic amine concentration (mM) at 48 h during in vitro rumen fermentation using different ratios of soybean meal and soluble starch Amines Soybean meal:soluble starch ratio Control 10:0 7:3 Histamine 0.013 (c) 3.230 (a) 2.134 (b) Methylamine ND 0.198 0.017 Ethylamine ND 0.376 0.072 Tyramine ND ND ND Phenylethylamine ND ND ND Putrescine ND 0.863 0.222 Cadaverine
ND 0.343 0.071 Amine index 0.013 (b) 4.436 (a) 2.427 (a) Total amine 0.013 (c) 5.009 (a) 2.516 (b) Amines Soybean meal:soluble starch ratio 5:5 3:7 0:10 Histamine 0.020 (c) 0.026 (c) 0.015 (c) Methylamine ND ND ND Ethylamine ND ND ND Tyramine ND ND ND Phenylethylamine ND ND ND Putrescine 0.000 0.000 ND Cadaverine
ND ND ND Amine index 0.020 (b) 0.026 (b) 0.015 (b) Total amine 0.020 (c) 0.026 (c) 0.015 (c) ND, not detected.
The most important BAs in foods are histamine, putrescine, cadaverine
, tyramine, tryptamine, phenylethy-lamine, spermine, and spermidine .
Louis, MO, USA), 0.1 ml of substrate solution (175 [micro]g cadaverine
dihydrochloride, Sigma Chemical Inc., St.
In vitro formation of piperidine, cadaverine
and pipecolic acid in chick and mouse brain during development.
In the salt-sugar group, Pseudallescher was dominant in the middle and later stages, which was linked to a decrease in the protein content and nutritional value of the silage for the production of biogenic amines, including putrescine, cadaverine
and tyramine in silage .
of amino-acid lysine into cadaverine
, which, in turn, is processed into
production by Azospirillum brasilense and its possible role in plant growth promotion and osmotic stress mitigation.
GABA, Put, cadaverine
(Cad) and tyramine (TY) as imitative of FAA extracted from the column HP-5 (30 m x 0.32 mm i.d) at temperature 110 AdegC for 1 min, tracked by heating rate 25 AdegC to 260 AdegC /min.