This and other examples suggest that vascular calcification
can start inside blood vessels.
Caption: "The interesting thing here is that, in order for [matrix Gla protein] to inhibit calcification
, it needs to be gamma-carboxylated by vitamin K.
of IVD is an uncommon but well-defined clinical syndrome in children; however, its etiology is not known yet.
The extent and distribution of calcification
are important factors while assessing a solitary pulmonary nodule; however, this is difficult and confusing.
The Chi-square test was used to analyze categorical variables, such as the rate of calcification
of the choroid plexus, thalamus, and cerebellum.
The researchers found that 19.1 percent of patients had hippocampal calcifications
. The presence of hippocampal calcifications
was associated with older age (odds ratio per year, 1.05), diabetes mellitus (odds ratio, 1.50), and smoking (odds ratio, 1.49).
In pre-clinical studies, the experimental therapy has shown potential to generate plasma pyrophosphate and to restore it to appropriate physiological levels, thereby preventing calcification
in the vasculature and kidneys and normalizing bone.
Although the exact pathogenesis of increased vascular calcification
in CKD is not fully understood there are some very plausible hypotheses and candidates: from the very beginning disturbances in the phosphorus (P) and calcium (Ca) metabolism [25,26], altered expression of many factors, which are involved or regulate the mineral metabolism [27, 28], and perhaps most importantly chronic microinflammation which is present in CKD patients early on in the disease and comes along with increased CRP levels [29, 30] have been discussed as important pathogenetic factors.
The nodular calcification
in the SVG was successfully treated by PCI without any complications (Figure 4).
Recent studies have shown that Notch1 signaling pathway, a regulator of angiogenesis and osteogenesis, plays a role in the development of vascular calcification
In contrast, impaired autophagy contributes to a wide range of vascular pathologies including atherosclerosis and calcification
Over the years we received many calls asking if higher dose vitamin K2 could reverse vascular calcification
. Until recently, we did not know the answer.