In practice, these are difficult to differentiate on CT, having in common well-marginated solitary or multiple pulmonary nodules/masses that can cavitate and calcify.
Examples include apical tuberculous fibronodular changes, symmetric bilateral ground glass opacities in pneumocystis jiroveci pneumonia, cavitary filling defects of aspergillomas, hepatic and pulmonary hydatid cysts, and pleuroparenchymal changes in paragonimiasis, all of which may calcify, rarely in some cases.
These nodules can densely calcify or densely consolidate.
The diffuse low-grade astrocytomas (Figure 18) are the most common glial neoplasms demonstrating calcifications; however, only the minority of these tumors calcify.
The oligodendrogliomas (Figure 20) exhibit the highest frequency of calcification among all brain tumors, since up to 90% of them calcify.
The percentage of meningiomas (Figures 23-25) that calcify ranges from 20% to 69%.