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calendering,a finishing process by which paper, plastics, rubber, or textiles are pressed into sheets and smoothed, glazed, polished, or given a moiré or embossed surface. The material is passed through a series of rollers; the resulting surface depends on the pressure exerted by the rollers, on their temperature, composition, and surface designs, and on the type of coating or glaze previously applied to the material to be calendered.
the processing of materials (fabric, paper, orrubber) on a calender. In the production of paper, calenderingis done on machine calenders installed at the end of the dryingsection of a paper machine or on separate supercalenders. Paper processed on a supercalender is called calendered or glossy pa-per; paper that has been passed through a machine calender andhas a lower gloss is called machine-finished paper. The smooth-ness produced by calendering depends on the type of rollers (itis greater with the combined use of cast-iron and paper rollers), their temperature (smoothness increases under heating), the pa-per composition and moisture content (paper with greater kaolin content calenders better), and the pressure between the calenderrollers. In the production of rubber, calendering is used for manufacturing sheet rubber in various thicknesses, for plasticiz-ing and heating rubber stock, and for rubberizing fabric. Intextile manufacturing, calendering is used for packing cotton, linen, and jute fabrics, adding luster to them, and applying em-bossed patterns.