Soon the caliphal
claim of the Ottoman Sultans was widely accepted and their name started to be mentioned in the Friday khutba in some Indian mosques (Khan, 1876: 155).
state or other states that succeeded it, as well as awqaf designated by private benefactors for education, paid for it.
His topics include dirham die production in the caliphal
period, Mujib in northern Afghanistan 293/905-302/914, the early years of al-Hasan b Muhammad in the Jabal region of northern Iran 335/946-352/963, and Muhammad the die-engraver in Kakwayhid Isfahan 413/1022-421/1030.
She demonstrates that harems were subdivided by loyalties and conflicts that rendered them "first and foremost a political arena, in which highly positioned women, as well as leading eunuchs, participated in major caliphal
The collection isn't strictly chronological, but it has an overall historical thrust, moving from these early portraits through places like Caliphal
Baghdad, Ottoman Turkey, nineteenth-century Tunisia, and twentieth-century Egypt.
In this period, it became clear that caliphal
power over the law was to be limited to issues of the public sphere, while the jurists maintained authority over the religio-legal spheres.
The church contained strong Islamic influences in architecture, such as decorations and vaults in the Caliphal
It is the historical content of these textile inscriptions, which makes them a valuable resource for historical research into the caliphal
administration of the early Islamic period.
For example, the somewhat eclectic forms and motifs from Andalusian, Abbasid, and Moghul architecture in works erected by the Sultan-Caliph Abdul Hamit II express his claim to exert caliphal
authority throughout the Muslim world, which consequently was cause for concern to French, British, and Russian imperial powers who claimed authority over large Muslim populations.
46 Umayyad building activity on the qasba hill can be dated from written sources to the late caliphal
years of 'Abd al-Rahman III al-Nasir (r 300 AH/912 cE-350 AH/961 CE; amir al-mu'minin from late 316 AH/early 929 ce).47 It is uncertain whether the hill was already fortified at that point and whether any preexisting fortifications were re-modelled entirely or substantially, or merely repaired and augmented.
The Ibadis preceded the Shii challenge to caliphal
rule by more than a century, but their North African heartland eventually fell to the Fatimid Shiis in the tenth century.