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, calif, kalif, khalif
Islam the title of the successors of Mohammed as rulers of the Islamic world, later assumed by the Sultans of Turkey



the spiritual and secular head of the Muslim community and of the theocratic Muslim state, or caliphate. The caliphs were regarded at first as deputies of Allah’s messenger Muhammad, and later—from the time of the Umayyads—as deputies of Allah himself on this earth. Beginning with the first half of the tenth century, the title of caliph was adopted by the Fatimids and by the Umayyads in Spain, as well as by the Abbasids. After the fall of the Abbasid caliphate in the 13th century, the title was used by the heads, or sultans, of certain Muslim states (for example, the Turkish sultans) who claimed spiritual sovereignty over all the world’s Muslims. See references under .

References in periodicals archive ?
The decline of effective caliphal authority, both moral and political, permitted religious differences that had been kept at the simmer to break into full boil.
As for 'Abd Allah, before he had taken steps to use the letters he had secured in Damascus, a chance encounter a few days after their arrival expedited his access to the caliphal court.
It can be deduced that it simply crossed the garden of the Caliphal Palace, for the architects of the caliph had made no provision in the street system for travel from quarters north of the palace to those in the south.
The first century of Arab rule was enough to demonstrate that neither the caliphal nor the tribal style of governance could adequately control and administer a multicontinental and multicultural empire.
18) As a scholar committed to the Sunni vision of an unbroken, legitimate caliphal succession from Abu Bala down to his own time, Ebn Asakir needed to demonstrate that the Umayyads as a whole were lawful (if flawed) heads of the community.
It is true that the appellation silica( 'Ali appears in history only after the rise of <Ali to caliphal power during the first fitna.
Burd's salacious poetry, which occasioned a caliphal ban, and seeks to understand his stylistic experiments as a reaction to social backlash.
Chapter four is on how caliphal lands were conceptualized by Arabo-Islamic authors and contextualized within the broader political landscape of the time, and on the many attitudes current at the time to the division of the world, to the boundaries of the caliph's lands, and to what lay beyond them.
For the caliphal appointment decree of Fakhr al-Dawla, written in the caliph's name and dated to 10 Jumada 1 366/4 January 977, see Ibrahim b.
In chapter one, Walker's introduction to the Fatimid khutba highlights themes of particular interest, and is interspersed with a discussion of the relevant historical sources: sermons and "sermonizers," the Fatimid caliph's festival khutbas, Fatimid khutbas, and examples of specific caliphal orations.
Similarly, what it means to say that 'Abbasid state organization was not neo-Sasanian may not be sufficiently remarked upon by anyone unfamiliar with the assumption that the relocation to Baghdad and the style of the caliphal court were related to a supposed Persianization of Islamic leadership and culture (p.