Abd al-Rahman's great punitive expedition against the Idrisids as Galib was leaving Cordoba in mid-April 973 CE, and (b) caliphal
reproaches to officials in the Maghrib for not proceeding quickly enough with fortification work at Tangeir was dated 7 May 973 CE, three weeks after Galib left cordoba.
Sunni legal doctrine concerning caliphal
or political rule understands the matter otherwise: the ruler should, in principle, certainly have superior qualities, but they do not transcend ordinary human excellences; the ruler's selection, as such, only requires the consensus of peers of similar distinction.
The Ibadis preceded the Shii challenge to caliphal
rule by more than a century, but their North African heartland eventually fell to the Fatimid Shiis in the tenth century.
His power finally succumbed not to the caliphal
army but to the typical Kharijite penchant for disunion.
More generally, Islamic orthodoxy touched off a process of normalization, in which adherence to Islamic norms as interpreted by the leaders of the caliphal
state became increasingly important, both for maintaining ties of patronage with state officials and for avoiding reprisals such as slave raids meted out to pagans and "bad" Muslims.
There was never to be another smooth caliphal
succession as long as the Abbasids mattered.
Nadia Maria El Cheikh challenges the historiography on the "reign" of Shaghab, mother of the caliph al-Muqtadir, and proposes that we look at powerful women in their own right, rather than merely as symbols of decline and decadence in caliphal
These topics are: (a) early caliphal
practices; (b) Qur'anic attitude toward political stewardship; (c) consultation (At.
the identity of "the Mamluks" and the significance of claiming "the caliphal
You have abused caliphal
tolerance, allowing yourself backroom backhanded handlings, violating the annals of the Empire.
We have touched upon slavery in the context of the attempted centralization of state power, both at the emirate and the caliphal
more people lived in the Caliphal
capitol who knew a good deal about Aristotle than those living in the capital of the Holy Roman Empire in the west.