caliph

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Related to caliphal: khalif, kaliph

caliph

, calif, kalif, khalif
Islam the title of the successors of Mohammed as rulers of the Islamic world, later assumed by the Sultans of Turkey

Caliph

 

the spiritual and secular head of the Muslim community and of the theocratic Muslim state, or caliphate. The caliphs were regarded at first as deputies of Allah’s messenger Muhammad, and later—from the time of the Umayyads—as deputies of Allah himself on this earth. Beginning with the first half of the tenth century, the title of caliph was adopted by the Fatimids and by the Umayyads in Spain, as well as by the Abbasids. After the fall of the Abbasid caliphate in the 13th century, the title was used by the heads, or sultans, of certain Muslim states (for example, the Turkish sultans) who claimed spiritual sovereignty over all the world’s Muslims. See references under .

References in periodicals archive ?
Abd al-Rahman's great punitive expedition against the Idrisids as Galib was leaving Cordoba in mid-April 973 CE, and (b) caliphal reproaches to officials in the Maghrib for not proceeding quickly enough with fortification work at Tangeir was dated 7 May 973 CE, three weeks after Galib left cordoba.
Sunni legal doctrine concerning caliphal or political rule understands the matter otherwise: the ruler should, in principle, certainly have superior qualities, but they do not transcend ordinary human excellences; the ruler's selection, as such, only requires the consensus of peers of similar distinction.
The Ibadis preceded the Shii challenge to caliphal rule by more than a century, but their North African heartland eventually fell to the Fatimid Shiis in the tenth century.
More generally, Islamic orthodoxy touched off a process of normalization, in which adherence to Islamic norms as interpreted by the leaders of the caliphal state became increasingly important, both for maintaining ties of patronage with state officials and for avoiding reprisals such as slave raids meted out to pagans and "bad" Muslims.
There was never to be another smooth caliphal succession as long as the Abbasids mattered.
Nadia Maria El Cheikh challenges the historiography on the "reign" of Shaghab, mother of the caliph al-Muqtadir, and proposes that we look at powerful women in their own right, rather than merely as symbols of decline and decadence in caliphal regimes.
These topics are: (a) early caliphal practices; (b) Qur'anic attitude toward political stewardship; (c) consultation (At.
the identity of "the Mamluks" and the significance of claiming "the caliphal title").
You have abused caliphal tolerance, allowing yourself backroom backhanded handlings, violating the annals of the Empire.
We have touched upon slavery in the context of the attempted centralization of state power, both at the emirate and the caliphal level.
more people lived in the Caliphal capitol who knew a good deal about Aristotle than those living in the capital of the Holy Roman Empire in the west.