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The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.



(1) In man, thickening of the skin on the hands and feet caused by friction and pressure.

(2) Most catarrhine monkeys have ischial callosities, or hairless areas of heavily fat-padded skin in the inferior dorsal hip region. In large anthropoid apes, calluses on the dorsal side of the middle phalanges of the fingers are used for support while walking.

(3) Cushionlike thickenings of the skin and fatty tissue on the lower surface of the feet in all tylopods (camels and extinct forms) and over the carpi, elbows, knees, and breast in all camelids.

(4) Nuptial callosities are rough masses on the forelegs of male frogs.

The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.
References in periodicals archive ?
That comes with some big caveats, though: People with certain medical conditions, such as diabetes, should neither go barefoot nor let calluses build up, said Dr.
All calluses were cultivated in growth chamber on +24[degrees]C, 2 Lx, 16/8 h (day/night) photoperiod, and 80% humidity for five weeks.
Genomic DNA was extracted from up to 100 mg of fresh tissues of donor plant leaves, calluses, and regenerants' leaves.
"Both result in poor blood flow to the feet, which can cause minor problems like cuts, corns, calluses, and ingrown toenails to become infected more easily," he explains.
In this study, in the months in which there were less rooting (May to July), the calluses were more developed, which may indicate that formation of roots in layering of lychee is independent of callus formation, or the presence of callus is not a precursor of initiation of roots, both are events that occur independent of one another.
Within the UK it is estimated that 75-80% of people over 65 present with callus or corns (14,15), and, not surprisingly, calluses are more common in women (15,16).
To remove calluses, soak your feet in warm water for 10-15 minutes to soften the skin.
2.0 mm size callus was harvested from initial calluses generated in [MS + 1.5 mg/l BAP] and then sub-cultured in to the different concentrations (2, 3, 4, and 5 mg/l) of BAP.
In the refracture due to periosteal, endosteal and parosteal calluses the subcutaneous hematoma absent because periosteum closely attaches to the callus.
Changes in polyamines, proline and ethylene in sunflower calluses treated with NaCl.
The calluses were induced under dark conditions and later transferred to 16-h photoperiod (35 mmol m-2 s-