Faced with tens of militants who threatened to kill hundreds of Muscovites, Russian authorities pumped a calmative into the ventilation system rather than storm the theater.
Consider, for example, five possible nonlethal means to disable a financial institution, telecommunications facility, or media outlet that provides war sustaining aid: calmative agents; arrest and deportation; electromagnetic technologies; kinetic force; and cyber warfare.
For reasons discussed earlier, some chemical agents, such as calmatives, fall within the pharmaceutical realm of nonlethal chemicals, therefore requiring operators with specialized training to apply these agents correctly.
Kenny, The Advantages and Limitations of Calmatives for Use as a Non-Lethal Technique (College of Medicine, Applied Research Laboratory, Pennsylvania State College, 3 Oct.
Their intent of using a calmative agent inside the Dubrovka theater was to incapacitate and then kill the Chechen terrorists, verified by the amount of fentanyl agent used in the raid.
JNLWD spokesman Shawn Turner says the military has recently abandoned research on calmatives but not because of international legal issues.
"The JNLWD has been fascinated by calmatives since its inception, and it is chomping at the bit to use them," he says.
Barring such results as those the Russians faced when 116 innocents were inadvertently killed by the pumped gas, calmatives are a seductive form of "non-lethal weapons" for use in crowd control because of their "reversible effects." While international treaties forbid the wartime use of chemical weapons (Chemical Weapons Convention, Geneva Protocol) and demand military protocols that respect human rights, international law gets fuzzy with regard to what the U.S.
military or law enforcement OOTW's use of calmatives violates cognitive liberty and threatens mental sovereignty.
JNLWP has planned computer simulations of the offensive use of calmative
agents, contracted with a major US military supplier to develop an overhead-exploding chemical riot control mortar round, and field-tested new non-lethal weapons (but not biological ones) on humans in Kosovo.
But unlike traditional weapons, neither calmatives nor the ADS can be developed or tested without medical knowledge or the participation of medical personnel.
The development of this new generation of ["nonlethal"] weapons incorporates knowledge from the remarkable advances made in medical science; two examples are calmatives and eye attack lasers....