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Obsolete a hypothetical elastic fluid formerly postulated as the embodiment of heat



a hypothetical substance (weightless fluid) representing heat by whose presence in bodies scientists of the 18th and early 19th centuries attempted to explain observed heat phenomena, such as the heating of bodies, heat exchange, thermal expansion, and thermal equilibrium. The caloric theory required that certain unusual properties be ascribed to this fluid, for example, weightlessness, an elasticity greater than that of all other substances, and an ability to penetrate and expand the tiniest pores of bodies. In the 18th century, scientists hypothesized the existence of weightless fluids besides caloric, among them phlogiston, to explain the physical and chemical properties of substances. Only at the beginning of the 19th century was it conclusively proven that heat phenomena are caused by the chaotic movement of atoms and molecules. An important role in refuting the caloric theory was played by the experiments of B. Rumford (1798) and H. Davy (1799) that proved that the heating of bodies can be brought about by mechanical work.

References in periodicals archive ?
If the mechanisms are confirmed, hormonal hunger signaling may represent a new way to combat Alzheimer's disease, either by itself or combined with caloric restriction," the researcher added.
Other signs provided either an absolute caloric count or a percentage of total recommended daily intake, but the physical activity equivalent was most likely to reduce purchases, the researchers wrote.
Records for patients selected based on our inclusion and exclusion criteria were examined for the following: age, gender, mechanism of injury, Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) score (3 to 8) on admission to the hospital and the ICU, initial computed tomography scan (CT) results (based on attending radiologist reading), and exact time of nutritional support initiation and achieving full caloric intake.
The paired t-test was used to compare weight between baseline and final rat body weight in all groups, while the independent sample t-test was used to compare variations in weight between the Test and Control groups for low and high caloric values.
Co-author Sterling Johnson, a neuroscientist at the University of Wisconsin, said the caloric reduction also improved brain health.
From 1970-2005, caloric intake in the United States increased by 24 percent.
Because cutting down on calories slows metabolism, and free radicals are by-products of metabolism, caloric restriction may reduce oxidative damage to cells.
On the contrary, weight gain results in increased caloric expenditure from carrying around the extra weight and maintaining metabolism in the additional body tissue.
Key words: Sand flies, caloric reserves, biological potential, bloodmeal, insect vectors.
The Harris-Benedict formula (BMR based on total body weight): This equation will be very accurate in all but the extremely muscular (for whom it will underestimate caloric needs) and the extremely overweight (for whom it will overestimate caloric needs).
The bottom line on protein: It should comprise approximately 15% of the daily caloric intake.
Moderate-intensity exercise coupled with caloric restriction was better than exercise alone for inducing favorable changes in waist circumference in women in a recent study.