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Obsolete a hypothetical elastic fluid formerly postulated as the embodiment of heat
Collins Discovery Encyclopedia, 1st edition © HarperCollins Publishers 2005
The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.



a hypothetical substance (weightless fluid) representing heat by whose presence in bodies scientists of the 18th and early 19th centuries attempted to explain observed heat phenomena, such as the heating of bodies, heat exchange, thermal expansion, and thermal equilibrium. The caloric theory required that certain unusual properties be ascribed to this fluid, for example, weightlessness, an elasticity greater than that of all other substances, and an ability to penetrate and expand the tiniest pores of bodies. In the 18th century, scientists hypothesized the existence of weightless fluids besides caloric, among them phlogiston, to explain the physical and chemical properties of substances. Only at the beginning of the 19th century was it conclusively proven that heat phenomena are caused by the chaotic movement of atoms and molecules. An important role in refuting the caloric theory was played by the experiments of B. Rumford (1798) and H. Davy (1799) that proved that the heating of bodies can be brought about by mechanical work.

The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.
References in periodicals archive ?
Description of Key Variables Characteristics n % ICU type PICU 78 71.6 SICU 31 28.4 Disposition status at discharge Home 52 47.7 Disability 30 27.5 Coma/death 27 24.7 Type of nutrition TPN 3 3.3 Enteral 83 92.3 Both (TPN and enteral) 4 4.4 Mdn Range Time to initiate nutritional 1.49 0.02-11.88 support (days; n = 90) Time to achieve full caloric 3.39 0.55-19.63 intake (days; n = 89) ICU LOS (days; N = 109) 2.09 0.01-97.93 Note.
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Co-author Sterling Johnson, a neuroscientist at the University of Wisconsin, said the caloric reduction also improved brain health.
"Rather than focusing on differences between one caloric sweetener and another, long-term studies comparing high fructose corn syrup-sweetened beverages with non-caloric beverages are more relevant to the issue of increased caloric intake of sweeteners overall," said Rippe.
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Blank describes a uniform weight gain of a half-pound a week due to candy bars, and extrapolates that figure out to 26 pounds in 1 year, then 130 pounds in 5 years, he assumes the "person does no additional exercise to burn off those extra calories." On the contrary, weight gain results in increased caloric expenditure from carrying around the extra weight and maintaining metabolism in the additional body tissue.
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That landmark project, supported by the National Institutes of Health, was one of the most in-depth efforts to measure the long-term impacts of caloric restriction in humans.
Clarifying these concerns, Iman Ali Al Bastaki, director of Food Safety Department, told Gulf News that food establishments are free to choose the services of qualified professionals or compute the caloric value of ingredients by using third-party software.
Chua said only one company had secured the required FDA approval to convert its sweetener from HFCS to caloric and non-caloric sweeteners, while other companies that have not yet done so.
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