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Obsolete a hypothetical elastic fluid formerly postulated as the embodiment of heat
Collins Discovery Encyclopedia, 1st edition © HarperCollins Publishers 2005
The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.



a hypothetical substance (weightless fluid) representing heat by whose presence in bodies scientists of the 18th and early 19th centuries attempted to explain observed heat phenomena, such as the heating of bodies, heat exchange, thermal expansion, and thermal equilibrium. The caloric theory required that certain unusual properties be ascribed to this fluid, for example, weightlessness, an elasticity greater than that of all other substances, and an ability to penetrate and expand the tiniest pores of bodies. In the 18th century, scientists hypothesized the existence of weightless fluids besides caloric, among them phlogiston, to explain the physical and chemical properties of substances. Only at the beginning of the 19th century was it conclusively proven that heat phenomena are caused by the chaotic movement of atoms and molecules. An important role in refuting the caloric theory was played by the experiments of B. Rumford (1798) and H. Davy (1799) that proved that the heating of bodies can be brought about by mechanical work.

The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.
References in periodicals archive ?
The Verdict: Although an intermittent fasting diet may lead to weight loss and possibly better insulin control, fasting or strictly limiting caloric intake can be difficult to maintain over a very long period of time.
In 33.33% of patients, caloric intake was greater than necessary, while a reduced caloric intake was present in 50% of subjects as a result of an attempt to lose weight, due to which they consumed less food than usually; an additional reason could be incorrectly kept diet diaries and intake under-reporting.
Although caloric intake was below the expected energy requirement for CT, the amount of carbohydrate and protein intake were according to the American College of Sports Medicine recommendations in both season trainings.
Mean caloric intake in children of group 1 (age 1-6 years) on day 1 was 283 k/cals where as in group 2 (age 6-12) was 481 k/cals on day 2 in group 1 mean caloric intake was 356 k/cals and of group 2 was 569 k/cals and the mean caloric intake on day 3 for group 1 was 416 k/cals whereas that of group 2 was 702 k/cals.
Interestingly, these protective effects of WD-feeding on ischemic injury persisted after reducing caloric intake (Figure 4(b)).
The memory study compared the daily caloric intake and memory abilities of 1,233 dementia-free people between the ages of 70 and 89.
Kallfelz, involves "simply an equation of caloric intake versus caloric expenditure.
The "2010 Dietary Guidelines" recommend limiting total intake of discretionary calories, which include added sugars and solid fats, to 5%-15% of daily caloric intake, yet many Americans continue to exceed these recommendations.
This retrospective, descriptive correlation study examined the timing of nutritional supplement initiation and the timing of achieving full caloric intake in relation to length of stay (LOS) in the intensive care unit (ICU) and patient disposition status at discharge from hospital in children 8-18 years old.
Also at the meeting attendees heard how modifying total daily caloric intake, reducing the amount of meat intake and consuming more fresh fruit and fiber may reduce the risk of kidney stones.
Results of the study showed that while candy contributed modestly to caloric intake on days it was consumed, candy consumers appear able to balance their caloric intake over the long term.
Not surprisingly, the more times girls ate during the course of a day, the higher their caloric intake. But upon statistical adjustment for caloric intake, white girls who ate more frequently had significantly lower consumption of total fat, saturated fat, and sodium, and more intake of dietary fiber than did girls who ate less often.