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Obsolete a hypothetical elastic fluid formerly postulated as the embodiment of heat
Collins Discovery Encyclopedia, 1st edition © HarperCollins Publishers 2005
The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.



a hypothetical substance (weightless fluid) representing heat by whose presence in bodies scientists of the 18th and early 19th centuries attempted to explain observed heat phenomena, such as the heating of bodies, heat exchange, thermal expansion, and thermal equilibrium. The caloric theory required that certain unusual properties be ascribed to this fluid, for example, weightlessness, an elasticity greater than that of all other substances, and an ability to penetrate and expand the tiniest pores of bodies. In the 18th century, scientists hypothesized the existence of weightless fluids besides caloric, among them phlogiston, to explain the physical and chemical properties of substances. Only at the beginning of the 19th century was it conclusively proven that heat phenomena are caused by the chaotic movement of atoms and molecules. An important role in refuting the caloric theory was played by the experiments of B. Rumford (1798) and H. Davy (1799) that proved that the heating of bodies can be brought about by mechanical work.

The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.
References in periodicals archive ?
Caloric requirements for the whitetail deer have been determined by information supplied by not only the Georgia Department of Natural Resources, Fish and Game Division (1, pers comrn.) but also The Landing Association (4, 5.
But, there is no registered dietitian and no written caloric requirements within the prison system.
More food!'" but the caloric requirements to cover activity during the extra hours of wakefulness are very small.
Current research on growth composition and caloric requirements should be considered for each developmental disability.
If a treater has significant obesity or body image difficulties, for example, it may compromise his ability to be objective in assessment and in such areas as setting caloric requirements.
Parenteral nutrition allows for more rapid achievement of nutritional goals but is associated with significant complications compared to enteral nutrition.[1] Enteral administration is preferred in patients with a functional gastrointestinal tract who are unable to meet their protein and caloric requirements with oral intake.[15,21] The main benefits of enteral nutrition include physiological preservation of gut function and integrity, improved nutrient use, and safer administration.[3,16] Enteral nutrition promotes growth of intestinal mucosal cells and stimulates production of secretory immunoglobin A, which prevents bacteria from attaching to the intestinal lumen.[26] This process functions in part to protect against bacterial translocation and subsequent systemic infection.
(Caloric requirements vary by age, gender, physical activity, and other factors.)
Caloric requirements are already low for most people over 60.