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Obsolete a hypothetical elastic fluid formerly postulated as the embodiment of heat



a hypothetical substance (weightless fluid) representing heat by whose presence in bodies scientists of the 18th and early 19th centuries attempted to explain observed heat phenomena, such as the heating of bodies, heat exchange, thermal expansion, and thermal equilibrium. The caloric theory required that certain unusual properties be ascribed to this fluid, for example, weightlessness, an elasticity greater than that of all other substances, and an ability to penetrate and expand the tiniest pores of bodies. In the 18th century, scientists hypothesized the existence of weightless fluids besides caloric, among them phlogiston, to explain the physical and chemical properties of substances. Only at the beginning of the 19th century was it conclusively proven that heat phenomena are caused by the chaotic movement of atoms and molecules. An important role in refuting the caloric theory was played by the experiments of B. Rumford (1798) and H. Davy (1799) that proved that the heating of bodies can be brought about by mechanical work.

References in periodicals archive ?
Table-II: Comparison of protein intake with optimum caloric requirement in post operative pediatric patients.
But, there is no registered dietitian and no written caloric requirements within the prison system.
but the caloric requirements to cover activity during the extra hours of wakefulness are very small.
Current research on growth composition and caloric requirements should be considered for each developmental disability.
If a treater has significant obesity or body image difficulties, for example, it may compromise his ability to be objective in assessment and in such areas as setting caloric requirements.
1] Enteral administration is preferred in patients with a functional gastrointestinal tract who are unable to meet their protein and caloric requirements with oral intake.
Caloric requirements are already low for most people over 60.
More than half of Iraqi women and children are receiving less than 50 percent of their daily caloric requirements, officials say.