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Obsolete a hypothetical elastic fluid formerly postulated as the embodiment of heat
Collins Discovery Encyclopedia, 1st edition © HarperCollins Publishers 2005
The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.



a hypothetical substance (weightless fluid) representing heat by whose presence in bodies scientists of the 18th and early 19th centuries attempted to explain observed heat phenomena, such as the heating of bodies, heat exchange, thermal expansion, and thermal equilibrium. The caloric theory required that certain unusual properties be ascribed to this fluid, for example, weightlessness, an elasticity greater than that of all other substances, and an ability to penetrate and expand the tiniest pores of bodies. In the 18th century, scientists hypothesized the existence of weightless fluids besides caloric, among them phlogiston, to explain the physical and chemical properties of substances. Only at the beginning of the 19th century was it conclusively proven that heat phenomena are caused by the chaotic movement of atoms and molecules. An important role in refuting the caloric theory was played by the experiments of B. Rumford (1798) and H. Davy (1799) that proved that the heating of bodies can be brought about by mechanical work.

The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.
References in periodicals archive ?
Vertigo in whiplash injury: A presentation of prevalent butterfly patterns of caloric tests. Indian J Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 2010; 62: 208-14.
After allowing the stimulated SCC to recover for 8 mins, cold caloric test was done using water at 30[degrees] C.
In this article, we describe our study to compare the extent to which unrecorded and recorded horizontal HITs performed and interpreted by a resident and an experienced otoneurologist would predict VNG caloric test lateralization results.
The vestibular function, before and after the CI was also assessed with 30 consecutive patients with profound sensorineural hearing loss which were subjected to CI, by means of the test of caloric test, cephalic impulse test with video (vHIT) and the DHI questionnaire.
Keywords: Caloric test, ocular VEMP, video head impulse test, peripheral vestibular disorder, vestibular hypofunction, canal paralysis
Videonystagmography (VNG) caloric test was the basis to divide group into 2 categories: vestibular caloric positive (canal paresis > 19%) and caloric negative (canal paresis [less than or equal to] 19%) groups.
In recent years, many researchers have focused on whether the caloric test can evaluate the function of vertical semicircular canals.
The most important aspect of caloric tests is to visualise the tympanic membrane when irrigating.
As found in previous studies [6, 30], four patients without canal paresis was missing c-VEMP, which may be explained by the location of the tumor since c-VEMP and caloric test investigate the inferior and superior nerve pathways, respectively.
Analytic view to concordance between electrocochleography and caloric test in Meniere's disease.
CONCLUSION: Thirty patients of diabetic nephropathy, thirty patients of uncomplicated diabetes mellitus were assessed regarding their vestibular and auditory functions by using pure tone audiometry and caloric test.
Videonystagmographic (VNG) evaluation, bithermal caloric test, positional tests, and other tests such as head-shaking, clinical head impulse, Romberg's and sharpened Romberg's, Unterberger's stepping, and eyes open/closed tandem gait tests were performed.