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Obsolete a hypothetical elastic fluid formerly postulated as the embodiment of heat



a hypothetical substance (weightless fluid) representing heat by whose presence in bodies scientists of the 18th and early 19th centuries attempted to explain observed heat phenomena, such as the heating of bodies, heat exchange, thermal expansion, and thermal equilibrium. The caloric theory required that certain unusual properties be ascribed to this fluid, for example, weightlessness, an elasticity greater than that of all other substances, and an ability to penetrate and expand the tiniest pores of bodies. In the 18th century, scientists hypothesized the existence of weightless fluids besides caloric, among them phlogiston, to explain the physical and chemical properties of substances. Only at the beginning of the 19th century was it conclusively proven that heat phenomena are caused by the chaotic movement of atoms and molecules. An important role in refuting the caloric theory was played by the experiments of B. Rumford (1798) and H. Davy (1799) that proved that the heating of bodies can be brought about by mechanical work.

References in periodicals archive ?
Dietary fructose induces endotoxemia and hepatic injury in calorically controlled primates.
Water-packed produce like cucumbers and berries keep the body hydrated in summer, while winter's calorically dense foods like beef and potatoes give the body energy.
As the most calorically dense nutrient, fat has been a desired energy source across much of human evolution.
Inhibition of these neurons, which also activate pituitary adenylate cyclase, decreased feeding in calorically deficient mice.
A second set also received a sham operation but was put on a calorically restricted diet.
27) performed an inpatient energy balance study in 12 lean and 9 obese individuals as they consumed 2 calorically distinct diets for brief periods of time, and these investigators simultaneously monitored the gut microbiota by performing pyrosequencing studies of bacterial 16S rRNA genes present in feces and by measuring ingested and stool calories by bomb calorimetry.
Winter diets have largely been assumed to include the food cache (Baker and Hill, 2003) and aquatic vegetation when available (Northcott, 1972), although caches are not calorically sufficient to sustain body mass of all colony members through winter (Novakowski, 1967).
This drinking companion will tell you when it's calorically cool to drink a brew, how many, and how much you'll need to sweat to work it off.
various proposals have been made in recent years for significant taxes on calorically sweetened beverages, though none have been enacted.
This pattern is particularly applicable if there is a genetic predisposition for obesity or a 'toxic' environment in which calorically dense foods are readily available and physical activity is limited.
This is caused by urbanization and globalization, which resulted in significant changes in food, with increasing availability of processed foods (rich in fat, sugar and sodium), easy access to calorically dense and cheap foods (especially affecting low-income families), overall reduction in physical activity, increased morbidity and mortality, modification of age groups, excessive consumption of alcohol, smoking and stress (BRASIL, 2008; GENTIL, 2009; WHO, 2003b).