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Obsolete a hypothetical elastic fluid formerly postulated as the embodiment of heat
Collins Discovery Encyclopedia, 1st edition © HarperCollins Publishers 2005
The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.



a hypothetical substance (weightless fluid) representing heat by whose presence in bodies scientists of the 18th and early 19th centuries attempted to explain observed heat phenomena, such as the heating of bodies, heat exchange, thermal expansion, and thermal equilibrium. The caloric theory required that certain unusual properties be ascribed to this fluid, for example, weightlessness, an elasticity greater than that of all other substances, and an ability to penetrate and expand the tiniest pores of bodies. In the 18th century, scientists hypothesized the existence of weightless fluids besides caloric, among them phlogiston, to explain the physical and chemical properties of substances. Only at the beginning of the 19th century was it conclusively proven that heat phenomena are caused by the chaotic movement of atoms and molecules. An important role in refuting the caloric theory was played by the experiments of B. Rumford (1798) and H. Davy (1799) that proved that the heating of bodies can be brought about by mechanical work.

The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.
References in periodicals archive ?
The static pressure measurements at the lower surface of the 14-X B model are compared with the static pressure evaluated at the same freestream conditions via no viscous flow, calorically perfect air ([gamma] = 1.4) oblique shock wave relationships, and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations using the ANSYS FLUENT software (Figure 9).
"Other factors are a sedentary lifestyle, excessive treats and today's calorically dense pet food formulations.
This study assumes that the gas is calorically perfect and the shock- boundary layer interaction is neglected for further simplicity.
We need to transform society such that norms, expectations and the many food-related aspects of our societal infrastructure are redirected in ways that encourage and support calorically appropriate and otherwise high quality diets.
On the other hand, meats, dairy, and processed foods are calorically dense.
For example, the type or amount of food is likely to be better calorically in captivity than in the wild (Alasalvar et al., 2002; Gregorakis et al., 2002; Handeland et al., 2003; Periago et al., 2005; Benetti et al., 2010), and it could accelerate the development of the reserves a fish needs to graduate to the next habitat during its life history.
This was demonstrated in a study evaluating gut microbiota composition in 9 obese and 12 lean individuals after altering nutrient loads with 2 calorically different diets, a 2400 kcal or 3400 kcal diet consumed for 3 consecutive days, with a washout period between diets (18).
The court noted that even though one meal that was provided contained only approximately 1900 calories due to a mistake in packaging the Ramadan meals, the mistake was corrected the next day and thereafter the prisoner was given calorically and nutritionally adequate meals throughout the Ramadan fast.
True, your mood will probably improve shortly after you eat your favorite high-carb hug, but no more so than if you'd eaten a granola bar -- a pleasant enough choice, but hardly a fixture in that calorically elevated "comfort food'' category.
To understand categories of food and bodies in such a way (e.g., scientific and technological), we need to be calorically literate: we need to be able to parse a menu in New York City, to consume food responsibly according to our activity levels, and to understand our bodies through a metabolic determinism that circumscribes how "hot" we can be.
This was done because whole fruits are typically nutrient dense, whereas fruit juices are typically calorically dense and have no fiber.
Oxepa is calorically dense (1.5 cal/mL) with concentrated calories for fluid-restricted patients, and contains a unique oil blend containing 4.6 g/L of EPA and 4 g/L of GLA to help modulate inflammation.