Calque

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Related to calqued: loan translations

loanwords and loan translations

English takes many of its words from different languages around the world. These words are broadly known as borrowings, and are subdivided into two categories: loanwords and loan translations.
A loanword is a term taken from another language and used without translation; it has a specific meaning that (typically) does not otherwise exist in a single English word. Sometimes the word’s spelling or pronunciation (or both) is slightly altered to accommodate English orthography, but, in most cases, it is preserved in its original language.
A loan translation (also known as a calque), on the other hand, is a word or phrase taken from another language but translated (either in part or in whole) to corresponding English words while still retaining the original meaning.
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Calque

 

(in linguistics), semantic borrowing by means of the literal translation of the separate parts of a word or phrase. A lexical caique is a word created by full morphological substitution, that is, by the translation of each morpheme, for example, Russian pred-met (object) from Latin ob-ject-um or Russian sushchestvitel’noe (substantive) from Latin substantivum. In phraseological caiques, whole expressions are modeled after foreign patterns, as in Russian prisutstvie dukha (composure) from French presence d’esprit or English five-year plan and French plan cinquiennel from Russian piatiletnii plan. A special type of caique is one in which a word is given a figurative meaning, modeled on a foreign word with the same literal meaning, for example, Russian vkus (taste) from French gout or Russian cherta (feature), from French trait. When the inappropriate meaning of a homonymous foreign word is used, an erroneous caique is formed, as in Russian byt’ne v svoei tarelke (“to be out of sorts”; literally, “not in one’s plate”) from the French il n’est pas dans son assiette (assiette, “plate,” “position”). The caiqueis a very common linguistic phenomenon and is primarily literary in origin.

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And cowboy, which was calqued after Spanish vaquero ('a man who herds cows'), later extended its meaning ('an man who herds and tends cattle, esp.
First it restricts the types of compounds that exist in the language (no root compounds, no phrasal compounds, to the exception of calqued ones, a popular strategy in journalese in Modern Bulgarian), it regulates the non-productivity of compound verbs and limits their typology, etc.
This suggests that they are calqued from the Indonesian/Malay construction in which T is also unflagged.
The verb by contrast is more conservative, notwithstanding the existence of numerous phrasal verbs with [square root of (term)]?bd 'do', [square root of (term)] tmm 'become', [square root of (term)] ?hb 'give', etc., most of them calqued on Persian (pp.
When the Latin phrase was calqued but also supplemented with more information in Scots, the label extended calque was used, see examples (7-10).
A conceptual error can be defined more specifically as an erroneous form (a word, phrase, entire sentence, entire text, and so on) that is, on the linguistic surface, Italian (that is, it contains Italian words and grammar), but is, on the conceptual level, English (that is, it contains "calqued" English-based concepts).
Shippey observes that there is a strong association between the Riders of Rohan in Tolkien's The Lord of the Rings and the Anglo-Saxons of poetry and history, and more specifically that "the chapter 'The King of the Golden Hall' is straightforwardly calqued on Beowulf" (94).
The former is an idiom (perhaps calqued on French jusqu'au point de) whose lexical entry stipulates its use as an adjunct.
(26) A possible exception is the present tense beon : wesan distinction which may perhaps have been calqued on the distinction between the copula and the verbum substantivum in Brittonic as well as in the other Celtic languages.
The new statutes accorded prose a higher priority than poetry, particularly condemning occasional verse (especially epithalamia in honour of 'Hinz und Kunz', which would now be banned), hence now the change of name from 'Teutschubende Poetische Gesellschaft' to 'Deutsche Gesellschaft', a name deliberately calqued on 'Academie Francaise'.
However, the passage of time and the accumulation of experience have enabled the editors both to take advantage of the publication of new editions of five base texts and to devise a new system for treating verbs the component elements for which are calqued on Latin.
Such aspects of periodic speech the Roman grammarians commonly treated under the heading of compositio, arrangement, a term calqued from the Greek synthesis.(5) For example, the ninth book of Quintilian's Institutio Oratoria contains an exhaustive study of compositio treated under three broad headings: ordo (order), iunctura (connections), and numerus (rhythm).