And cowboy, which was calqued
after Spanish vaquero ('a man who herds cows'), later extended its meaning ('an man who herds and tends cattle, esp.
First it restricts the types of compounds that exist in the language (no root compounds, no phrasal compounds, to the exception of calqued
ones, a popular strategy in journalese in Modern Bulgarian), it regulates the non-productivity of compound verbs and limits their typology, etc.
This suggests that they are calqued
from the Indonesian/Malay construction in which T is also unflagged.
The verb by contrast is more conservative, notwithstanding the existence of numerous phrasal verbs with [square root of (term)]?bd 'do', [square root of (term)] tmm 'become', [square root of (term)] ?hb 'give', etc., most of them calqued
on Persian (pp.
When the Latin phrase was calqued
but also supplemented with more information in Scots, the label extended calque was used, see examples (7-10).
A conceptual error can be defined more specifically as an erroneous form (a word, phrase, entire sentence, entire text, and so on) that is, on the linguistic surface, Italian (that is, it contains Italian words and grammar), but is, on the conceptual level, English (that is, it contains "calqued
" English-based concepts).
Shippey observes that there is a strong association between the Riders of Rohan in Tolkien's The Lord of the Rings and the Anglo-Saxons of poetry and history, and more specifically that "the chapter 'The King of the Golden Hall' is straightforwardly calqued
on Beowulf" (94).
The former is an idiom (perhaps calqued
on French jusqu'au point de) whose lexical entry stipulates its use as an adjunct.
(26) A possible exception is the present tense beon : wesan distinction which may perhaps have been calqued
on the distinction between the copula and the verbum substantivum in Brittonic as well as in the other Celtic languages.
The new statutes accorded prose a higher priority than poetry, particularly condemning occasional verse (especially epithalamia in honour of 'Hinz und Kunz', which would now be banned), hence now the change of name from 'Teutschubende Poetische Gesellschaft' to 'Deutsche Gesellschaft', a name deliberately calqued
on 'Academie Francaise'.
However, the passage of time and the accumulation of experience have enabled the editors both to take advantage of the publication of new editions of five base texts and to devise a new system for treating verbs the component elements for which are calqued
Such aspects of periodic speech the Roman grammarians commonly treated under the heading of compositio, arrangement, a term calqued
from the Greek synthesis.(5) For example, the ninth book of Quintilian's Institutio Oratoria contains an exhaustive study of compositio treated under three broad headings: ordo (order), iunctura (connections), and numerus (rhythm).