Defamation

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The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.

Defamation

 

in criminal law, a crime against the individual, consisting in the spreading of fabrications known to be false that defame another person. For the act to be deemed defamation, it is necessary that the guilty person know that he is spreading false information intended to damage the victim’s reputation, and it is sufficient that the information be communicated to only one person. Under Soviet law, circumstances aggravating responsibility are the spreading of false defamatory fabrications by a person previously convicted of defamation; the spreading of defamatory fabrications in a printed work or a work reproduced by other means; and the spreading of fabrications known to be false combined with the accusation of commission of a crime against the state or other grave crime.

Defamation is punishable by deprivation of freedom or correctional labor for a term of one year or a fine of 50 rubles, or by imposition of the obligation to make amends for the harm caused, or by public censure. In the event of aggravating circumstances, deprivation of freedom for a five-year term may be applied (for example, Criminal Code of the RSFSR, art. 130). In cases involving defamation without aggravating circumstances proceedings are initiated only on the complaint of the victim and are subject to dismissal in the event of reconciliation with the defendant before the court withdraws to render its judgment. In exceptional instances provided for by law, proceedings may be initiated by the procurator even in the absence of a complaint by the victim. The circulation of true though defamatory information does not constitute a crime under Soviet legislation.

The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.
References in periodicals archive ?
"He is certainly welcome to Gujarat to campaign for the Congress party, but has come and joined, unfortunately, the campaign of calumny, based on untruths and misleading the public with falsehoods.
The importance of calumny is in a sense bound up with honor and you cannot establish calumny without first mentioning honor.
Over 20 years after Heysel and coming up to the 20th anniversary of Hillsborough, a time when all Scousers, blue and red were united in grief, no decent fans ought ever hear such calumny
"It is surprising that a person claiming to be head of state should fall to such depths as to circulate such calumny against the chief justice of his own country," Chaudhry said in the open letter.
Oppression, injustice, contempt, contumely, violence, sedition, war, calumny, treachery, fraud' by these they mutually torment each other."
There is such a strong defense of the virginity of Mary here that the Qu'ran, in the fourth book, attributed the condemnation of the Jews to their monstrous calumny against the Virgin Mary.
The story is always the same: Periodically, a mainstream newspaper or magazine will run a "barbarians at the gate" story about blogs as purveyors of misinformation, calumny, and digital mob rule, and the Web will respond by summoning the unquiet ghost of disgraced New York Times reporter Jayson Blair and scoffing at the mainstream media's obvious fear of competition.
To call it confused would be a calumny on confusion; to say that it was a hash of half-understood liberal cliches would be unfair to the institution of the cliche.
Had such a calumny come from Howard Dean, say, rather than from Giuliani, it would have ignited a firestorm.
The calumny of this administration far exceeds anything I've experienced in my 48 years as an American citizen (or rather second-class citizen; I'm not fully enfranchised).
'It is a vile calumny that they should continually be branded bureaucrats and penpushers when they do so much to care for NHS patients,' he said.