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1. Education
a. written exercises, oral questions, or practical tasks, set to test a candidate's knowledge and skill
b. (as modifier): an examination paper
2. Med
a. physical inspection of a patient or parts of his body, in order to verify health or diagnose disease
b. laboratory study of secretory or excretory products, tissue samples, etc., esp in order to diagnose disease
3. Law the formal interrogation of a person on oath, esp of an accused or a witness
Collins Discovery Encyclopedia, 1st edition © HarperCollins Publishers 2005
The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.



(Russian, ekzamen), in the USSR, a comprehensive survey of the knowledge of a student or of a person graduating from or entering an educational institution. Unlike tests (zachety), examinations—both oral and written—are always graded.

After the October Revolution of 1917 the system of examinations that existed in Russia was abolished. The following examinations were made compulsory in the 1930’s: annual promotion examinations in general-education schools, beginning in fourth grade; admission, or entrance, examinations for higher and specialized secondary educational institutions; and semester final and state graduation examinations in higher and specialized secondary educational institutions.

In 1944 graduation examinations were instituted for students of incomplete secondary and secondary schools. According to the Statute on the Secondary General-Education School of 1970, the procedure for administering examinations in secondary general-education schools is determined by the ministries of education (or public education) of the Union republics. Compulsory graduation examinations are given in the eighth and 10th (or 11th) grades. Students who pass them receive a certificate of completion of an eight-year school or a certificate of secondary education. Promotion examinations may be instituted for the fourth through seventh grades and the ninth (or 10th) grade by the ministry of education (or public education) of a Union republic. There may be no more than three such examinations per grade. The certificate of completion of an eight-year school and the certificate of secondary education may also be received through the system of extramural education.

In higher and specialized secondary educational institutions, the time and procedure for administering competitive entrance examinations, semester finals, and state graduation examinations are determined by the Ministry of Higher and Secondary Specialized Education of the USSR according to the type of school. Students who have passed all tests are permitted to take the semester final examinations, and students who have passed all the semester finals may take the graduation examinations.

At many institutions of higher learning and at many technicums, defense of a diploma project or diploma thesis replaces state examinations in special disciplines. Vocational-technical schools and vocational courses give qualifying examinations for certain ratings, or ranks, in various lines of work. In addition to qualifying examinations, secondary vocational-technical schools also give graduation examinations in general-education subjects.


Narodnoe obrazovanie v SSSR: Obshcheobrazovatel’naia shkola: Sb.dokumentov 1917–1973. Moscow, 1974. Pages 161–64, 170–72, 228–35,420–36.


The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.

What does it mean when you dream about an examination?

Dreaming about taking a test could indicate that the dreamer has a fear of failure. Alternatively, such a dream could indicate that a specific issue of great importance to the dreamer reminds them of being in school. “Passing the test” can also be a metaphor for successfully concluding any number of different activities.

The Dream Encyclopedia, Second Edition © 2009 Visible Ink Press®. All rights reserved.
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The list of requirements for a circulating-biomarker test for early cancer detection is lengthy (4).
Breast cancer detection by mammography is more challenging in dense breasts, which have a high amount of fibroglandular tissue, as compared with the fatty tissue seen in less-dense breasts.
All had dense breasts, and reviews by board-certified radiologists showed a statistically significant increase in breast cancer detection when the device was used with mammography as compared with mammography alone.
A full field of golfers enjoyed outstanding weather, a barbecue lunch, cocktails, dinner and entertainment, and learned from young adult cancer survivors whose lives were saved through awareness and early cancer detection. Golfers included former New England Patriots player and young adult cancer survivor Joe Andruzzi, former Patriots player Patrick Pass, and former Boston Bruins players Rick Middleton, Derek Sanderson and Bob Sweeney.
The breast cancer detection system presented here is based on Support Vector Machines (SVM).
Chief Executive Arnab Basu said: "We are extremely excited by this contract''s potential to significantly advance clinical diagnostics, in the field of breast cancer detection, and potentially way beyond.
In 1968 Dr Stark appeared in The Journal, after she and the WCDS raised pounds 20,000 for breast cancer detection equipment.
The Arab Fund for Economic and Social Development signed here on Wednesday a 220,000 Kuwaiti dinar (JD538,500) agreement to buy mobile early cancer detection unit for the King Hussein Cancer Foundation.