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(1) An individual contending or being considered for a governmental or public post (such as a presidential candidate or legislative candidate) or any position.
(2) In prerevolutionary Russia, individuals who completed with distinction studies in a university or in any equivalent higher education establishment (lyceum, academy), and presented written work on their chosen theme. The degree of kandidat was introduced in 1804; although it was abolished by the 1884 statutes, it was retained up until 1917 in Warsaw and Iur’ev (Tartu) universities, Demidov Lyceum (Iaroslavl’), and ecclesiastical academies, which were not affected by the statutes. The degree was used in combination with the name of the education establishment or branch of learning (for instance, kandidat Moskovskogo Universiteta or kandidat slovesnosti [candidate inphilology]); on entering governmental service the holder of thedegree was entitled to a rank of the tenth class (kollezhskii sekretar’ collegiate secretary). Another title was kandidat kommertsii (candidate in commerce), which was awarded to individuals who completed with distinction studies at the St. Petersburg or Kharkov commercial schools.