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canning, process of hermetically sealing cooked food for future use. It is a preservation method, in which prepared food is put in glass jars or metal cans that are hermetically sealed to keep out air and then heated to a specific temperature for a specified time to destroy disease-causing microorganisms and prevent spoilage. Low-acid foods, such as meats, are heated to 240°–265℉ (116°–129℃), while acidic foods, such as fruits, are heated to about 212℉ (100℃). Canning was invented in 1809 by Nicholas Appert. The process proved moderately successful and was gradually put into practice in other European countries and in the United States. Glass containers were used at first, but they proved bulky, costly, and brittle. Early canmaking was slow and expensive; sheets of tin were cut with shears, bent around a block, and the seams heavily soldered. A good tinsmith could make only about 60 cans a day. The industry began to assume importance with the invention in 1847 of the stamped can. Because of the food requirements of soldiers during the U.S. Civil War, considerable amounts of canned meats and vegetables were produced. Salmon from the Columbia River was canned in 1866 and salmon from Alaska in 1872. A machine for shaping and soldering was exhibited in 1876 at the Centennial Exposition at Philadelphia. The open-top can of the 20th cent., with a soldered lock seam and double-seamed ends, permits easy cleaning and filling. Cans used for foods that react with metals, causing discoloration (usually harmless), may be coated with a lacquer film. Highly specialized machinery, knowledge of bacteriology and food chemistry, as well as more efficient processes of cooking, have combined to make the commercial canning of food an important feature of modern life. The range of products canned has increased enormously and includes meat and poultry; fruits and vegetables; seafood; milk; and preserves, jams, jellies, pickles, and sauces. The general principles of commercial and home canning are the same, but the factory more accurately controls procedures and has highly specialized machinery. The Mason jar, popular in home canning, was patented in 1858. Home canning grew in popularity during World War II, when the harvest of “victory gardens” was canned. Canning leads to a loss of nutrient value in foods, particularly of the water-soluble vitamins. The home-canning methods recommended today are much more specific than the old-fashioned methods, which are no longer considered safe.


See A. C. Hersom and E. D. Hulland, Canned Foods (1981); C. Walker, The Complete Book of Canning (1982).

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(food engineering)
Packing and preserving of food in cans or jars subjected to sterilizing temperatures.
Placing a jacket around a slug of uranium before inserting the slug in a nuclear reactor.
McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific & Technical Terms, 6E, Copyright © 2003 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.


1. Charles John, 1st Earl Canning. 1812--62, British statesman; governor general of India (1856--58) and first viceroy (1858--62)
2. his father, George. 1770--1827, British Tory statesman; foreign secretary (1822--27) and prime minister (1827)
Collins Discovery Encyclopedia, 1st edition © HarperCollins Publishers 2005
References in periodicals archive ?
Not if you're the consumer who's paying frozen-entree prices for canned food. And not if the new packaging can make it easier to ingest harmful bacteria.
This is chiefly because top-quality ingredients like real, fresh meats from named species - one of the main draws of canned foods - cost more than lower-quality rendered meat meals, meat by-products, and plant proteins.
Following a 2.7% (PS2.3 billion) increase in sales of canned food last year, a first for the category in five years, it has been reported that canned food has seen a further 0.4% rise in sales year on year.
Following a 2.7% (PS2.3bn) increase in sales of canned food last year - a first for the category in five years - it has been reported that canned food has seen a further 0.4% rise in sales year on year.
For barn cats, uneaten canned food can quickly attract bugs (this can also be an issue if your house is plagued by ants).
The primary drivers of canned food market in future will be the increasing urban population in Saudi Arabia, added the report.
This middle-aged teacher in Arkansas had likely heard about botulism in canned food from his own mother and grandmother, seizing upon it as this singularly cool fact, relevant in the kitchen and in the science classroom.
The Smucker Company said in a statement Thursday that it started a voluntary recall of its wet canned food products including Gravy Train, Kibbles 'N Bits, Ol' Roy, and Skippy, distributed by 2016 until now, the Associated Press reported. 
In the text message, it claimed that some 200 people with HIV have been instructed by their leader to contaminate a canned food factory in Thailand with their blood.
From tinned vegetables and beans in sauce to evaporated milk and oil-packed sardines, it seems hard to imagine life without canned food. And yet these innocuous metal packages could be doing us real harm.
FSMA recognizes that FDA had already established regulations that are specific to seafood, juice and low-acid canned food long before FSMA went into effect.
every tuesday to collect donations of canned food items at the organization's "2-Can Tuesdays" event.