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process of hermetically sealing cooked food for future use. It is a preservation method, in which prepared food is put in glass jars or metal cans that are hermetically sealed to keep out air and then heated to a specific temperature for a specified time to destroy disease-causing microorganisms and prevent spoilage. Low-acid foods, such as meats, are heated to 240°–265°F; (116°–129°C;), while acidic foods, such as fruits, are heated to about 212°F; (100°C;). Canning was invented in 1809 by Nicholas AppertAppert, Nicolas
, also known as François Appert
, 1750–1841, French originator of a method of canning. In 1795 the French government offered a prize of 12,000 francs for a method of preserving food, especially for use by the army and navy.
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. The process proved moderately successful and was gradually put into practice in other European countries and in the United States. Glass containers were used at first, but they proved bulky, costly, and brittle. Early canmaking was slow and expensive; sheets of tin were cut with shears, bent around a block, and the seams heavily soldered. A good tinsmith could make only about 60 cans a day. The industry began to assume importance with the invention in 1847 of the stamped can. Because of the food requirements of soldiers during the U.S. Civil War, considerable amounts of canned meats and vegetables were produced. Salmon from the Columbia River was canned in 1866 and salmon from Alaska in 1872. A machine for shaping and soldering was exhibited in 1876 at the Centennial Exposition at Philadelphia. The open-top can of the 20th cent., with a soldered lock seam and double-seamed ends, permits easy cleaning and filling. Cans used for foods that react with metals, causing discoloration (usually harmless), may be coated with a lacquer film. Highly specialized machinery, knowledge of bacteriology and food chemistry, as well as more efficient processes of cooking, have combined to make the commercial canning of food an important feature of modern life. The range of products canned has increased enormously and includes meat and poultry; fruits and vegetables; seafood; milk; and preserves, jams, jellies, pickles, and sauces. The general principles of commercial and home canning are the same, but the factory more accurately controls procedures and has highly specialized machinery. The Mason jar, popular in home canning, was patented in 1858. Home canning grew in popularity during World War II, when the harvest of "victory gardens" was canned. Canning leads to a loss of nutrient value in foods, particularly of the water-soluble vitamins. The home-canning methods recommended today are much more specific than the old-fashioned methods, which are no longer considered safe.


See A. C. Hersom and E. D. Hulland, Canned Foods (1981); C. Walker, The Complete Book of Canning (1982).

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(food engineering)
Packing and preserving of food in cans or jars subjected to sterilizing temperatures.
Placing a jacket around a slug of uranium before inserting the slug in a nuclear reactor.
McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific & Technical Terms, 6E, Copyright © 2003 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.


1. Charles John, 1st Earl Canning. 1812--62, British statesman; governor general of India (1856--58) and first viceroy (1858--62)
2. his father, George. 1770--1827, British Tory statesman; foreign secretary (1822--27) and prime minister (1827)
Collins Discovery Encyclopedia, 1st edition © HarperCollins Publishers 2005
References in periodicals archive ?
(24) The result of these changes was the dismissal of the only skilled occupation within the cannery factory: the male-dominated can makers.
She explained: "The fire started at an old warehouse known as the Cannery. It used to be owned by Irish Sugar/Erin Foods.
He pointed out that before privatization the cannery employed over 1,000 people, while today the harvest collected in Masis is
Additionally the Kenai Loop # 4 well has also encountered several additional sands that appear to be gas bearing ('B' Zones), but do not compare with known productive sands in either the Cannery Loop or Kenai Loop fields.
SOUTHBRIDGE - The Cannery, a music hall in the 12 Crane St.
Built in 1944 in Seattle, she was once used to shuttle cannery workers to the Alaska Packers Salmon Cannery, which is Semiahmoo Resort & Spa.
It's the signature beer from the Alchemist Cannery, which opened in September as an extension of the Alchemist brewpub.
I would like to recommend the rotary nut cracker/sheller from Embarcadero Home Cannery (2026 Livingston St., Oakland, CA 94606).
Travel Business Review-December 20, 2010--International Game Technology Offers Server Based Technology to Cannery Casino and Hotel(C)2010] ENPublishing -
Earnings data show that employment grew from 2006 to 2008, while questionnaire responses show that employment dropped from 2008 to 2009; since the September 2009 closure of one tuna cannery, employment has very likely continued to drop.
So the two families decided to start their own cannery, Pelican Packers.