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(kăn'ənĭzā`shən), in the Roman Catholic Church, process by which a person is classified as a saintsaint
[O.Fr., from Latin sanctus=holy], in Christianity, a person who is recognized as worthy of veneration. Nature of Sainthood

In the Hebrew Scriptures God is "the Holy One" or "one who is holy" (Isa. 1.4; 5.19; 41.14). "His people share His holiness" (Ex.
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. It is now performed at Rome alone, although in the Middle Ages and earlier bishops elsewhere used to canonize. Beatification, by which a person is called blessed and his or her cult is approved, requires proof of a miracle through the candidate's intercession (unless the candidate for sainthood was martyred) and proof that the candidate's life was exemplary, and must precede canonization. A candidate for sainthood may be declared venerable before beatification if the person led an exemplary life. Canonization requires proof of at least one additional miracle (occurring after beatification) attributable to the saint.

Until 1983 the process of canonization was like a trial at which the saint was said to be defended by the church; a prosecutor was appointed to attack all evidence alleged in favor of canonization. The prosecutor was popularly called advocatus diaboli [devil's advocate], his opponent the advocatus Dei [God's advocate]. The process has now been streamlined, and the position of devil's advocate eliminated.

The first solemn canonization seems to have been that of St. Ulrich late in the 10th cent. The method of formal canonization was set by the enactments of Urban VIII that came into force in 1634. In the Orthodox Eastern Church, a synod of bishops within a self-governing church has the authority to canonize.



in the Catholic and Orthodox churches the inclusion of some person in the list of saints. In Catholicism it is an act that has been strictly defined with respect to law and public worship. The church-wide method of canonization was introduced by Pope Alexander III during the second half of the 12th century and was fixed in 1200 by Innocent III; the right to canonize became the exclusive prerogative of the Roman popes. In implementing canonization the church always pursues political aims.

Orthodoxy does not have as strict a system of canonization as Catholicism. In Russia church-wide canonization was introduced in the 16th century and was placed under the tsar’s control; from the time of Peter I it was implemented by imperial decree upon the recommendation of the synod.

References in periodicals archive ?
Nuns at the Missionaries of Charity, founded by the late Nobel laureate nun, said the canonisation in Rome will have a special universal significance because of the Mother's popularity.
As required by Church protocol and part of the canonisation ceremony, Pope Francis was asked thrice if the two popes should be saints, and he replied, reading the Latin canonisation text: "We declare and define John XXIII and John Paul II to be saints and we enroll them among the saints decreeing that they are to be venerated as such by the whole church.
On October 25, Cardinal Desmond Connell will preside at a Mass to mark the canonisation in the church of St Therese in Mount Merrion.
That's not to belittle the canonisation process at all.
Providing the criteria are observed and what happened is proved to be a miracle then there should be no obstacle to the canonisation of Mother Teresa.
The process of canonisation is being undermined by the numbers and speed that people are becoming saints.
CELEBRATION: St Peter's Square is jammed with 300,000 faithful attending the canonisation of Josemaria Escriva yesterday; JOY: The Pope blesses pilgrims
Writer Malachy McCourt and Larry Kirwan, leader of Irish rock band Black 47, are appalled the Catholic Church is opposed to the canonisation of Fr Mychal Judge, who died giving the last rites to one of his firefighters at Ground Zero.
John Paul presided over the canonisation of 87 Chinese Catholics and 33 foreign missionaries killed during a four-century campaign to bring Christ-ianity to the country.