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(kăn'ənĭzā`shən), in the Roman Catholic Church, process by which a person is classified as a saintsaint
[O.Fr., from Latin sanctus=holy], in Christianity, a person who is recognized as worthy of veneration. Nature of Sainthood

In the Hebrew Scriptures God is "the Holy One" or "one who is holy" (Isa. 1.4; 5.19; 41.14). "His people share His holiness" (Ex.
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. It is now performed at Rome alone, although in the Middle Ages and earlier bishops elsewhere used to canonize. Beatification, by which a person is called blessed and his or her cult is approved, requires proof of a miracle through the candidate's intercession (unless the candidate for sainthood was martyred) and proof that the candidate's life was exemplary, and must precede canonization. A candidate for sainthood may be declared venerable before beatification if the person led an exemplary life. Canonization requires proof of at least one additional miracle (occurring after beatification) attributable to the saint.

Until 1983 the process of canonization was like a trial at which the saint was said to be defended by the church; a prosecutor was appointed to attack all evidence alleged in favor of canonization. The prosecutor was popularly called advocatus diaboli [devil's advocate], his opponent the advocatus Dei [God's advocate]. The process has now been streamlined, and the position of devil's advocate eliminated.

The first solemn canonization seems to have been that of St. Ulrich late in the 10th cent. The method of formal canonization was set by the enactments of Urban VIII that came into force in 1634. In the Orthodox Eastern Church, a synod of bishops within a self-governing church has the authority to canonize.



in the Catholic and Orthodox churches the inclusion of some person in the list of saints. In Catholicism it is an act that has been strictly defined with respect to law and public worship. The church-wide method of canonization was introduced by Pope Alexander III during the second half of the 12th century and was fixed in 1200 by Innocent III; the right to canonize became the exclusive prerogative of the Roman popes. In implementing canonization the church always pursues political aims.

Orthodoxy does not have as strict a system of canonization as Catholicism. In Russia church-wide canonization was introduced in the 16th century and was placed under the tsar’s control; from the time of Peter I it was implemented by imperial decree upon the recommendation of the synod.

References in periodicals archive ?
The first to be canonised as saint from India was Mother Teresa, but it is Sr Alphonsa who is the first India-born saint, and Kerala will have icing on that cake when two more saints march into that exclusive league.
Another well-known figure from North America who was canonised is German-born Franciscan nun Maria Anna Cope who was born in 1838 and became known as the "Mother Marianne of Molokai" because she looked after lepers on the island of Molokai in the Hawaii archipelago.
Josemaria Escriva de Balaguer will be made a saint this week and he is only dead 27 years - whereas Thomas Moore was dead 400 years before he was canonised.
This principle revolutionised economics and economic organization; it also tore both from links with objective morality--Now the Enlightenment canonised the selfishness of the rich.
John XXII, born Angelo Roncalli, led the Catholic Church from 1958-63 and will be canonised even without having a miracle to his credit.
He also canonised Maria Guadalupe Garcia Zavala, a Mexican who dedicated herself to nursing the sick, helped Catholics avoid persecution during a government crackdown of the faith in the 1920s.
IRELAND has a new saint after Blessed Charles of Mount Argus was canonised by the Pope yesterday.
During his 26-year pontificate, John Paul canonised 482 people and beatified 1,338 - more than all his predecessors over the past 500 years combined.
Reputed to be tall and physically strong, he died on March 1 either in 589 or 602 and was canonised by Pope Callactus II in 1120.