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, capercailzie
a large European woodland grouse, Tetrao urogallus, having a black plumage and fan-shaped tail in the male
Collins Discovery Encyclopedia, 1st edition © HarperCollins Publishers 2005
The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.



(Tetrao urogallus), a bird of the family Tetraonidae, order Galliformes. The males weigh an average 4,100 g; females, 2,000 g. In males the top of the head, the neck, and the back are gray with dark markings, the wings are brown, the crop is black with a green metallic sheen, and the lower part of the body is dark with large white spots. The female’s plumage has dark and rusty ocher diagonal stripes. It is a sedentary bird, but sometimes performs seasonal migrations. It inhabits evergreen, mixed, and deciduous forests of Europe and Asia (in Siberia, it is found in the east as far as Western Transbaikalia, Olekminsk, and Viliuisk). The zone of distribution and the number of capercaillies has sharply diminished during the past two centuries; in some places they have disappeared. They were exterminated in Great Britain by the middle of the 18th century; in 1837 they were imported there from Sweden and acclimatized. In the USSR the capercaillie is retreating northward as forests are cut down; it has completely disappeared in a number of oblasts south of the forest zone (Kursk, Voronezh, and Tula, among others). It is polygamous.

The birds gather in the same mating places during the mating period year after year. They mate (March to May) on the ground and in trees; sometimes they mate summer, autumn, and even winter. The nest is on the ground, six to eight eggs to a clutch, rarely 12 to 16 eggs. Only the female sits, for a period of 25-28 days. Diet consists of shoots, flowers, buds, and berries in summer; the young eat insects and spiders. In the autumn, the capercaillie eats larch needles; in winter, pine and spruce needles and buds. It is the object of hunting for sport and, in some places, commercial hunting.


Kirikov, S. V. “Rod glukhari.” In Ptitsy Sovetskogo Soiuza, vol. 4. Edited by G. P. Dement’ev and N. A. Gladkov. Moscow, 1952.
Teplov, V. P. “Glukhar’ v Pechersko-Ylychskom zapovednike.” In Trudy Pechersko-Ylychskogo zapovednika, issue 4, part 1. Moscow, 1947.
Semenov-Tian-Shanskii, O. I. “Ekologiia teterevinykh ptits.” In Trudy Laplandskogo gosudarstvennogo zapovednika, issue 5. Moscow, 1960.


The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.
References in periodicals archive ?
2011b: Contemporary mature forest cover does not explain the persistence of Capercaillie (Tetrao urogallus) lekking areas in Finland.--Ornis Fennica 88: 208-216.
Ranger Glyn Jones spends his days among the red deer, golden eagles and capercaillie on the Royals' favourite summer retreat Balmoral (below) in the Scottish Highlands
eigenvectors > 0.3: capercaillie, black grouse, Chinese grouse Bonasa sewerzowi, greater sagegrouse Centrocercus urophasianus, lesser prairie-chicken Tympanuchus pallidicinctus), in contrast to species about which fewer papers have been written (eigenvector < -0.3: blue grouse; < -0.2: spruce grouse, ruffed grouse).
Foresters plant too many trees in bare areas destroying the natural habitat of western capercaillie (Tetrao urogallus).One of the symbols of the Slovak forests, the wood grouse or western capercaillie (Tetrao urogallus) has been dying out for more than 30 years.
In the Scottish Highlands, the Trust expects lynx to control not just deer numbers but also those of pine marten, leading to a recovery in capercaillie populations, recently reported to have halved to around 1,000 individuals.
The black-billed capercaillie (Tetrao urogalloides) is a large capercaillie which is considered an endangered species that has undergone a dramatic decline throughout the late 20th century.
Karen Matheson is best known as the voice of Celtic supergroup Capercaillie. On this occasion in Sage Two she was joined by fellow band member and husband Donald Shaw on piano and accordion, plus Sorren Maclean and Innes White on guitars.
Populations of capercaillie Tetrao urogallus have declined throughout central and western Europe over the last decades.
Also this winter, the gang will report on the elusive wild cats and the super-shy capercaillie.
INNOVATIVE Gaelic folk-rockers Capercaillie celebrate three decades with a new album and nationwide tour that takes in Warwick Arts Centre tonight.