capercaillie

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capercaillie

, capercailzie
a large European woodland grouse, Tetrao urogallus, having a black plumage and fan-shaped tail in the male
Collins Discovery Encyclopedia, 1st edition © HarperCollins Publishers 2005
The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.

Capercaillie

 

(Tetrao urogallus), a bird of the family Tetraonidae, order Galliformes. The males weigh an average 4,100 g; females, 2,000 g. In males the top of the head, the neck, and the back are gray with dark markings, the wings are brown, the crop is black with a green metallic sheen, and the lower part of the body is dark with large white spots. The female’s plumage has dark and rusty ocher diagonal stripes. It is a sedentary bird, but sometimes performs seasonal migrations. It inhabits evergreen, mixed, and deciduous forests of Europe and Asia (in Siberia, it is found in the east as far as Western Transbaikalia, Olekminsk, and Viliuisk). The zone of distribution and the number of capercaillies has sharply diminished during the past two centuries; in some places they have disappeared. They were exterminated in Great Britain by the middle of the 18th century; in 1837 they were imported there from Sweden and acclimatized. In the USSR the capercaillie is retreating northward as forests are cut down; it has completely disappeared in a number of oblasts south of the forest zone (Kursk, Voronezh, and Tula, among others). It is polygamous.

The birds gather in the same mating places during the mating period year after year. They mate (March to May) on the ground and in trees; sometimes they mate summer, autumn, and even winter. The nest is on the ground, six to eight eggs to a clutch, rarely 12 to 16 eggs. Only the female sits, for a period of 25-28 days. Diet consists of shoots, flowers, buds, and berries in summer; the young eat insects and spiders. In the autumn, the capercaillie eats larch needles; in winter, pine and spruce needles and buds. It is the object of hunting for sport and, in some places, commercial hunting.

REFERENCES

Kirikov, S. V. “Rod glukhari.” In Ptitsy Sovetskogo Soiuza, vol. 4. Edited by G. P. Dement’ev and N. A. Gladkov. Moscow, 1952.
Teplov, V. P. “Glukhar’ v Pechersko-Ylychskom zapovednike.” In Trudy Pechersko-Ylychskogo zapovednika, issue 4, part 1. Moscow, 1947.
Semenov-Tian-Shanskii, O. I. “Ekologiia teterevinykh ptits.” In Trudy Laplandskogo gosudarstvennogo zapovednika, issue 5. Moscow, 1960.

A. M. SUDILOVSKAIA

The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.
References in periodicals archive ?
Red fox Vulpes vulpes, pine marten Martes martes, raccoon dog Nyctereutes procyonoides, raccoon Procyon lotor and northern goshawk Acciptergentilis are potential predators of capercaillies in the study area.
In 2010-2013, we released a total of 98 juvenile capercaillies at the age of 16 weeks (Merta et al.
We tested using general linear models (GLM) with IBM SPSS Statistics 22 if 1) age of birds, 2) sex, 3) breeding method and 4) day length influenced daily ranges, distance travelled per hour and number of times capercaillies fed per h.
RSPB spokesman Paul Walton said: "The capercaillie is probably the most endangered bird in Scotland and we believe there are now less than 1000 across the country.
"There are a number of reasons why the capercaillie is dying out.
The Scots population of the iconic bird has dwindled from 20,000 in the 1970s to just 1228, according to the most recent survey of capercaillie numbers last winter.
Stuart Housden, of the Royal Society for the Protection of Birds, said: "We need concerted and swift action to make sure the capercaillie remains part of Scotland's wonderful wildlife."
Senior RSPB warden Desmond Durgan said: "The capercaillie is in big trouble and the birds need all the help that they can get to reproduce.