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A rounded, knoblike, usually terminal proturberance on a structure.
One of the rounded cells on the manubrium in the antheridia of lichens belonging to the Caliciales.
McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific & Technical Terms, 6E, Copyright © 2003 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.



(also head) a monopodial inflorescence in plants whose main axis has thickened into a patelliform or globular surface on which small flowers are usually distributed. The flowers are tubular, ligulate, or pseudoligulate. This type of inflorescence is primarily characteristic of plants of the family Compositae (daisy, dandelion, and sunflower). It is also found among plants of the families Umbelliferae (eryngo and sanicle) and Campanulaceae (sheep's-bit). The capitulum is surrounded by a many-leaved involucre, formed by the bracts of the outer flower (in sheep's-bit) or by modified apical leaves (in Compositae). This structure aids in the pollination of the flowers. In the process of evolution, several biological adaptations occurred to prevent self-pollination. For example, the flowers open gradu-ally, and the stamens develop earlier than the pistils. The capitulum developed from the umbel as a result of the reduction of the length of the flower stem.

The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.
References in periodicals archive ?
It is a well defined tribe that constitutes a natural group defined by capitula with all the florets bilabiate and by style branches truncate at the apex, glabrous on the outer surface, and apically crowned by elongate papillae or collector hairs (Figs.
The Council of 1148 thus seems to have been almost a rehearsal of that in Sens: a preceding assembly in which the capitula were discussed and condemned; the official examination being placed towards the end of a more public event; the reading of the capitula (qualified as errores by one of the members of the jury); the interruption by the accused; the sentence of the president.
Capitulescences monocephalous, terminal; capitula sessile to pedunculate, homogamous or heterogamous, discoid, disciform, or radiate; receptacle epaleate; involucre multiseriate, phyllaries acute at the apex or with an apical, showy appendage.
palustre from Mentor Marsh and Tamarack Bog grew more capitula, and produced a higher percent increase of mass, than S.
Breeding system: The results from pollination experiments showed that fruit set was observed at 15 of 20 bagged capitula for self-pollination and 18 of 20 untouched capitula for control.
On four days (four observation periods) in 2004 and six (seven observation periods) in 2014, visitation rates of bees to a fixed number of capitula were recorded for a period of 0.52 h and used to calculate the number of bee visits per capitulum per hour.
Li et al., "Hepatoprotective activity of aqueous ethanolic extract of chamomile capitula in paracetamol intoxicated albino rats," World Journal of Gastroenterology, vol.
Hydro-priming of safflower (Carthamus tinctorius) seed for 12 h resulted in higher number of plants [m.sup.2], capitula per plant, grains per capitulum, 1000 seed weight, grain yield, and oil content compared to untreated seed (Bastia et al., 1999).