Capitulum


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capitulum

[kə′pich·ə·ləm]
(biology)
A rounded, knoblike, usually terminal proturberance on a structure.
(botany)
One of the rounded cells on the manubrium in the antheridia of lichens belonging to the Caliciales.

Capitulum

 

(also head) a monopodial inflorescence in plants whose main axis has thickened into a patelliform or globular surface on which small flowers are usually distributed. The flowers are tubular, ligulate, or pseudoligulate. This type of inflorescence is primarily characteristic of plants of the family Compositae (daisy, dandelion, and sunflower). It is also found among plants of the families Umbelliferae (eryngo and sanicle) and Campanulaceae (sheep's-bit). The capitulum is surrounded by a many-leaved involucre, formed by the bracts of the outer flower (in sheep's-bit) or by modified apical leaves (in Compositae). This structure aids in the pollination of the flowers. In the process of evolution, several biological adaptations occurred to prevent self-pollination. For example, the flowers open gradu-ally, and the stamens develop earlier than the pistils. The capitulum developed from the umbel as a result of the reduction of the length of the flower stem.

References in periodicals archive ?
This is promising for successful restoration, as capitulum development has been useful for measuring the regeneration success of Sphagnum.
Anthesis is obviously asynchronous from plant to plant, capitulum to capitulum and floret to floret.
For patella, the tape length was measured in a way to start from capitulum fibulae and ending patella midpoint.
The free distal end of each hydroid, without tentacles, with numerous nematocysts surroundig the mouth (hypostome) forming a spherical capitulum. Hydroids more or less transparent, such that the mouth opening detected only during the feeding process and the gastrovascular cavity observed by transparency.
In the present specimen, these "islands" are present in the capitulum (mostly of the female type) at the male side, and at coxa IV of the female side.
In 2014 ultraviolet (UV) reflectance patterns of florets were examined by photographing a capitulum in sunlight using a Wratten 18A UV filter attached to a digital Nikon D3200 HD-SLR 24.2 MP DX-format camera with 5-6s exposures (Cabrera R.
Likewise, in the case of osteoporotic fractures, we should know that osteoporosis is more pronounced in the posterolateral part of the radial condyle (26), and that the area of the lateral columns, especially the capitulum and the distal part of the lateral column, has very thin cortices (31).
Gonostyli with long apically enlarged and medially curved capitulum, bearing a distinct lateral lobe-shaped tooth.
The specimen presented absence of a genital opening, triangular base of the capitulum, lanceolate hypostome and elongated scutum with unomamented rugose surface, and was thus identified and classified as a nymph of A.
Hydro-priming of safflower (Carthamus tinctorius) seed for 12 h resulted in higher number of plants [m.sup.2], capitula per plant, grains per capitulum, 1000 seed weight, grain yield, and oil content compared to untreated seed (Bastia et al., 1999).
In a similar manner, the stimuli given from the wrist and elbow were recorded from the abductor digiti minimi muscle for the ulnar nerve; while from the ankle and tibial fossa, the stimuli were recorded from the abductor hallucis muscle for the posterior tibial nerve; and from the ankle and capitulum fibula, they were recorded from the extensor digitorum brevis muscle for the peroneal nerve.
Waiting for the already scheduled operation, the second fall occurred, resulting in an additional fracture of the humeral capitulum (Figure 2).