In case of temporomandibular and capsular ligaments
, they were modeled as arc elements by using the sticking points as the base.
Four major ligaments of the spine are the anterior longitudinal ligament, the posterior longitudinal ligament, the supraspinous ligament, and the capsular ligaments
of the apophyseal/facet joints.
Disruption of capsular ligaments
causes abnormal motion between the proximal and distal rows in the wrist and are termed "nondissociative carpal instability." Examples of such injuries are disruptions of the dorsal intercarpal (DIC) ligament, dorsal radiocarpal (DRC) ligament, and radioscaphocapitate (RSC) ligament.
The disease manifests itself as inflammation of the synovial surface of the joint capsule, the capsular ligaments
, the periarticular tendons and bursa.