caraway

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caraway,

biennial Old World plant (Carum carvi) of the family Umbelliferae (parsleyparsley,
Mediterranean aromatic herb (Petroselinum crispum or Apium petroselinum) of the carrot family, cultivated since the days of the Romans for its foliage, used in cookery as a seasoning and garnish.
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 family), cultivated in Europe and North America for its aromatic seeds. They are small and ovate, with a pleasant spicy flavor, and are used as a condiment; as seasoning of pastry and bread doughs, cabbage, sausage, and some kinds of cheese; and as flavoring for certain liqueurs (as kümmel). The volatile oil expressed from the seeds is a stimulant and a carminative. Caraway is classified in the division MagnoliophytaMagnoliophyta
, division of the plant kingdom consisting of those organisms commonly called the flowering plants, or angiosperms. The angiosperms have leaves, stems, and roots, and vascular, or conducting, tissue (xylem and phloem).
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, class Magnoliopsida, order Umbellales, family Umbelliferae.
The Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia™ Copyright © 2013, Columbia University Press. Licensed from Columbia University Press. All rights reserved. www.cc.columbia.edu/cu/cup/
The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.

Caraway

 

(Trachyspermum copticum, Carum ajowan), an aromatic Indian plant. It is an annual of the Ajowan genus, of the Umbelliferae family. The stem is cylindrical, with longitudinal grooves and many branches and reaches a height of 70–120 cm. The root is thin and fusiform and goes down as far as 1 m below the ground. The leaves are alternate and pin-nately cleft two or three times; the lower leaves are stalky. The blossoms are small and monoecious with a white or violet corolla forming an intricate umbel. The fruit is dicotylous. The caraway grows well in hot and clear weather and on soil of moderate humidity. It grows wild in the Mediterranean region, Asia Minor, India, and Middle and East Asia. It is grown for essential oil in many countries, including India, Afghanistan, Iran, Turkey, the People’s Republic of China, Argentina, and North Africa. In the USSR it is grown in the Chuia Valley (Kirghizia); some biotypes grow in the central zone of the European USSR. The fruit contains 2.5–10 percent essential oil (with 35–40 percent thymol), 20–32 percent oil, and 15–17 percent albumin. The thymol is used in medicine, in perfume and cosmetic products, for paint and lacquer, and in the food and other industries. The de-thymolized essential oil (thymine) is used in making soap. The waste of the fruit processing makes good animal fodder. The seeds grow at a temperature of 8°C. Shoots appear 12–20 days after planting, depending on the temperature and humidity of the soil. The vegetation period is 120–156 days. The caraway is sown in early spring; in Kirghizia it can also be sown by the early winter, but the plantings need irrigation. The caraway is harvested with the two-stage method—the mowing process separated from the threshing—when the fruit in the umbels of the first-grown plants becomes brown among 60–70 percent of the plants. With good agrotechnology the harvest yield is 8–12 metric centners (800–1,200 kg) per ha.

A. T. KSENDZ

The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.

caraway

[′kar·ə‚wā]
(botany)
Carum carvi. A white-flowered perennial herb of the family Umbelliferae; the fruit is used as a spice and flavoring agent.
McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific & Technical Terms, 6E, Copyright © 2003 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

caraway

1. an umbelliferous Eurasian plant, Carum carvi, having finely divided leaves and clusters of small whitish flowers.
2. caraway seed the pungent aromatic one-seeded fruit of this plant, used in cooking and in medicine
Collins Discovery Encyclopedia, 1st edition © HarperCollins Publishers 2005
References in periodicals archive ?
Carrots and cream cheese, punctuatedwith caraway seeds, create a thick, flavorful blend.
by Times News Service Caraway seeds are used to give a distinctive flavour to bread, cabbage, soups, chicken, and cookies.
Heat oil in a skilA[degrees] let, cook onions, stir until golden, add caraway seeds, coriander, crushed red pepper and 1/2tsp salt for about 1 minute.
In a previous work dealing with the water deficit effects on Tunisian caraway seed ecotype collected from the region of Haouaria, we have demonstrated that this constraint induced a significant reduction in growth parameters and fatty acid contents but an increase in the proportions of essential oil constituents [15].
On to the market to pick up kosher salt, fennel seed, sugar, crushed hot pepper, caraway seed, ground coriander, paprika, fresh garlic--several good bottles of white wine.
Rye Bread: 1 cup plus 2 tablespoons rye flour, 1 tablespoon caraway seed, and 1 tablespoon Vital-wheat gluten.
Chefs will be at the Walled Garden, next to Allesley Hall, creating dishes from the past, including caraway seed cake, beetroot pancakes and biscuits flavoured with fennel, marigold and lavender.
The restaurant gets its name from the Scandinavian liquor flavored with caraway seed, which is served a variety of ways in Aquavit to complement the restaurant's exotic dishes.
Kitchen spice racks used to be simple things, with a few jars of items like paprika, caraway seed, garlic powder, and cinnamon for more-adventurous cooks moving away from the old standbys, salt and pepper.
Add potatoes, water, and caraway seed. Bring to boil, lower heat to medium, and simmer approximately 1 hour.
Each caraway seed is really the split half of the dried fruit.
A Yorkshire parkin B Balm cake C Simnel cake D Caraway seed cake QUESTION 15 - for 15 points: In which branch of the arts is the Queen Elizabeth II Coronation Award given?