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biennial Old World plant (Carum carvi) of the family Umbelliferae (parsleyparsley,
Mediterranean aromatic herb (Petroselinum crispum or Apium petroselinum) of the carrot family, cultivated since the days of the Romans for its foliage, used in cookery as a seasoning and garnish.
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 family), cultivated in Europe and North America for its aromatic seeds. They are small and ovate, with a pleasant spicy flavor, and are used as a condiment; as seasoning of pastry and bread doughs, cabbage, sausage, and some kinds of cheese; and as flavoring for certain liqueurs (as kümmel). The volatile oil expressed from the seeds is a stimulant and a carminative. Caraway is classified in the division MagnoliophytaMagnoliophyta
, division of the plant kingdom consisting of those organisms commonly called the flowering plants, or angiosperms. The angiosperms have leaves, stems, and roots, and vascular, or conducting, tissue (xylem and phloem).
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, class Magnoliopsida, order Umbellales, family Umbelliferae.
The Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia™ Copyright © 2013, Columbia University Press. Licensed from Columbia University Press. All rights reserved.
The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.



(Trachyspermum copticum, Carum ajowan), an aromatic Indian plant. It is an annual of the Ajowan genus, of the Umbelliferae family. The stem is cylindrical, with longitudinal grooves and many branches and reaches a height of 70–120 cm. The root is thin and fusiform and goes down as far as 1 m below the ground. The leaves are alternate and pin-nately cleft two or three times; the lower leaves are stalky. The blossoms are small and monoecious with a white or violet corolla forming an intricate umbel. The fruit is dicotylous. The caraway grows well in hot and clear weather and on soil of moderate humidity. It grows wild in the Mediterranean region, Asia Minor, India, and Middle and East Asia. It is grown for essential oil in many countries, including India, Afghanistan, Iran, Turkey, the People’s Republic of China, Argentina, and North Africa. In the USSR it is grown in the Chuia Valley (Kirghizia); some biotypes grow in the central zone of the European USSR. The fruit contains 2.5–10 percent essential oil (with 35–40 percent thymol), 20–32 percent oil, and 15–17 percent albumin. The thymol is used in medicine, in perfume and cosmetic products, for paint and lacquer, and in the food and other industries. The de-thymolized essential oil (thymine) is used in making soap. The waste of the fruit processing makes good animal fodder. The seeds grow at a temperature of 8°C. Shoots appear 12–20 days after planting, depending on the temperature and humidity of the soil. The vegetation period is 120–156 days. The caraway is sown in early spring; in Kirghizia it can also be sown by the early winter, but the plantings need irrigation. The caraway is harvested with the two-stage method—the mowing process separated from the threshing—when the fruit in the umbels of the first-grown plants becomes brown among 60–70 percent of the plants. With good agrotechnology the harvest yield is 8–12 metric centners (800–1,200 kg) per ha.


The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.


Carum carvi. A white-flowered perennial herb of the family Umbelliferae; the fruit is used as a spice and flavoring agent.
McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific & Technical Terms, 6E, Copyright © 2003 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.


1. an umbelliferous Eurasian plant, Carum carvi, having finely divided leaves and clusters of small whitish flowers.
2. caraway seed the pungent aromatic one-seeded fruit of this plant, used in cooking and in medicine
Collins Discovery Encyclopedia, 1st edition © HarperCollins Publishers 2005
References in periodicals archive ?
Remove the corn kernels from the cob with a sharp knife and transfer to a blender along with the remaining 1tbsp mustard and 1/2tbsp caraway seed.
Spoon salad onto plates and top equally with rye croutons, bacon pieces, and remaining 1 teaspoon caraway seeds.
In a 3- to 4-quart pan over high heat,bring broth with sliced carrots, onion, and 1/2 teaspoon caraway seed to a boil; cover and simmer until carrots are tender when pierced, about 15 minutes.
cover the potatoes, caraway seeds, and one tablespoon of salt with water and bring to a boil.
The latest flavor variant from the nation's largest roasted chicken chain is influenced by the North African hot chili pepper paste that combines roasted red or serrano peppers with spices and herbs such as garlic paste, cumin, coriander, and caraway seeds, lemon and olive oil.
The German liqueur Kummel is made from caraway seeds.
INGREDIENTS (Makes 1 cake) 100g good-quality unrefined sunflower oil, plus extra for greasing 225g plain flour 125g golden caster sugar 135g dark brown soft sugar 1tsp baking powder 1tsp bicarbonate of soda 1/2tsp ground allspice 2tsp toasted caraway seeds 1/2tsp sea salt flakes 90g toasted walnuts, roughly chopped 200g peeled carrot, grated Finely grated zest of 1 orange 3 eggs To serve (optional): Soured cream Clear honey or sugar Finely grated orange zest METHOD 1.
For the green masala Coriander, chopped 2 cups Green garlic, chopped 1 cup Coconut grated 2 cups Salt to taste Carom seeds 1 tsp Asafetida A' tsp Oil 2tbsp For the Muthia Methi green 1 bunch Gram flour 2 tbsp Garlic, crushed 2-3 pods Caraway seeds 1 tsp Coriander powder 2 tsp Red chili powder 1 tsp Cumin powder 1 tsp Turmeric powder 1 tsp Asafetida powder A' tsp Water to bind Salt to taste Oil for frying Method: For the methi muthia, wash and dry the fenugreek leaves, chop and keep aside.
CUMIN SPICE RUB: Place 2 tbsp cumin and 1/2 tsp caraway seeds in a heavy-based pan.
For the caraway flatbreads: 1kg plain flour, 1tsp baking powder, 4tsp fine sea salt, 2tbsp caraway seeds, 2tsp ground cumin, 4tbsp sunflower oil, plus extra for greasing.
GLUTEN-FREE BREADS Serving Size (g) SLICED BREAD (1 SLICE) Canyon Bakehouse 7 Grain Bread 34 Canyon Bakehouse White Bread 34 Glutino Cinnamon Raisin Bread 29 Glutino Multigrain Bread 29 Glutino White Bread 29 [check] New Grains Cinnamon Raisin Bread 57 [check] New Grains White Sandwich Bread 51 Rudi's Delis Style with Caraway Seeds 34 [check] Rudi's Multigrain Bread 29 [check] Rudi's Original Bread 29 Schar Artisan Baker Multigrain Bread 31 Schar Artisan Baker White Bread 31 Schar Deli Style Bread 48 The Essential Baking Co.