The carbohydrates, such as, xylose [11, 12], glucose [13-15], fructose , sucrose [15, 16], cyclodextrin , cellulose  and starch  have been used to prepare functional carbon materials through hydrothermal carbonization
. The as-prepared carbon microspheres (CMs) have a core-shell chemical structure consisting of a highly aromatic nucleus and a hydrophilic surface, which contains a variety of reactively hydrophilic oxygen chemical groups (carboxylic, carbonyl, ester, hydroxyl).
There was a sharp increase in the percentage removal of meal ions unto PMSAC at carbonization
temperature ranges (300 - 400AdegC) with a slight decrease at 450AdegC due to damaged cells of the adsorption site which enhance the adsorption capacity.
Tang, "Study on the carbonization
process in the fabrication of pebble fuel elements," Nuclear Engineering and Design, vol.
Figure 8(d) shows that the difference in microhardness between the LG-LJ ITZ and the mortar matrix is relatively small, and the microhardness and ITZ width of the transition zone before and after carbonization
are lower than those of the LG-XJ interface.
(2) Optimal Carbonization
Environment and Carbonization
In the case of HC, the major weight loss occurred at a temperature range of 200-400[degrees]C, and only one sharp peak at 335[degrees]C was detected in Figure 1(b), indicating that the biopolymer fractions especially hemicellulose were decomposed after the hydrothermal carbonization
. Similar phenomenon was also found in other studies .
Rabbits sacrificed at 0, 1, and 2 hours were pooled for the statistical evaluation of the depth and width of the incisions, carbonization
, and necrotic zones.
On the other hand, it should be mentioned that the next step, carbonization
of the samples, is usually performed at temperatures higher than 600[degrees]C so that gelatin will most probably completely be degraded after the carbonization
process is to enrich the carbon content and create initial porosity and the activation process helps in enhancing the pore structure.
When soybean was chemically activated after carbonization
and tested for supercapacitor electrodes, gravimetric capacitance and volumetric capacitance of 260 F [g.sup.-1] and 210 F [cm.sup.-3], respectively, was obtained in [H.sub.2]S[O.sub.4] .
The colour changes that were observed during the heat treatment were from white to brown after stabilization and black after carbonization
. The Ti[O.sub.2] particles of the PAN/Ti[O.sub.2]-EM nanofibres were dispersed fairly uniformly over the carbon nanofibres because the Ti[O.sub.2] nanoparticles were dispersed homogenously in the PAN solution before electrospinning.
After de carbonization
, the apparent density of the charcoal was determined, through the volume and weight measurements of the specimens, and the gravimetric yield of carbonization
by the reaction between the dry weight of charcoal and the absolutely dry weight of the specimen, before carbonization