was firstly been discovered by Schmeling and Kulla , numerous carboxylic acid amide fungicides with new structures have emerged consecutively .
Seeds showed germination of 87 and 89% in the 2014/15 and 2015/16 seasons, respectively, and were treated on the sowing day with Vitavax-Thiram 200 SC (200 g Carboxin
+ 200 g Thiram [mL.sup.-1]; 2.5 mL [kg.sup.-1] of seeds) and inoculant Gelfix[R] (Bradyrhizobium elkaniibr 5 x 109 colony forming units [mL.sup.-1]; 2 mL [kg.sup.-1] of seeds).
The pesticides studied were difenoconazole, carboxin
, chlorpyrifos, and thiabendazole, as they have an efficient action against the most common plagues and diseases that affect the caja tree and are recommended by the Ministry of Agriculture in Brazil.
Metabolic effects related to fungitoxicity of carboxin
. Phytopathology, 1970; 60: 1422-1427.
During incrustation process, the company used scarification with concentrated (98%) sulfuric acid ([H.sub.2]S[O.sub.4]) for 1-2 minutes, afterwards the seeds were coated with polymer (Disco Agro Red L203 at a dose of 160mL 100[kg.sup.-1]), fungicide (Carboxin
+ Thiran 200SC[R] at a dose of 300mL 100[kg.sup.-1] seed) and a coating material, which formulation was not disclosed by the company.
The inhibition of migration with TMZ treatment was enhanced in the presence of carboxin
(a complex II inhibitor), antimycin A (a complex III inhibitor), or apocynin (a NADPH oxidase inhibitor), but not in the presence of rotenone (a complex I inhibitor) (Figures 6(b) and 6(c)).
Fungicidal seed treatment with benomyl, thiram, benomyl + thiram, carbendazim + thiram, carboxin
+ thiram, fludioxonil, mancozeb, iprodione + triticonazole, prochloraz, thiophanate - methyl and ipconazole at 1-2% of seed weight found effective in various countries viz., Japan, Taiwan, Korea, Turkey, Iran, Pakistan, Bangladesh, India, Nepal and Italy (Ou, 1987; Bagga and Sharma, 2006; Bagga et al., 2007; Karov et al., 2009; Ora et al., 2011; Tateishi et al., 1998; Ghazanfar et al., 2009).
Procedure for the accelerated aging test exhibited 100 g of seeds from each of the tested weeds first in order to sterilizing in solution of %10sodium hypo chloride solution on 2 per thousand carboxin
thiram about three minutes has been located and then samples were washed with distilled water.
Paralelamente y bajo condiciones de invernadero, se germinaron tres semillas previamente desinfectadas (carboxin
0,3%) y sometidas a imbibicion con acido giberelico (0,1%) por 24 horas.
Al dia siguiente por una hora, a la misma temperatura, seguido de un tratamiento quimico con una solucion de carboxin
(Vitavax[R] 3,0 g/L) durante 10 minutos para evitar la propagacion de enfermedades.