Jelly

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jelly

[′jel·ē]
(geology)

Jelly

 

a dessert prepared with fruit or berry juices, as well as with wine, milk, and other liquids. It is made by boiling the liquid with sugar (about 60 percent) and adding small quanti-ties (0.5 to 2.5 percent) of substances, such as pectin and gelatin, that give the dish a jelly-like consistency after it has cooled. Jelly must be pasteurized for prolonged preservation. Jelly-like dishes prepared with meat, tripe, game, or fish are called studeri, kholodets, orzalivnoe.


Jelly

 

any one of the structuralized (semisolid) systems consisting of high-molecular-weight substances and low-molecular-weight liquids. Jellies are characterized by an absence of fluidity and by an ability to retain their shape, strength, and elasticity. These properties derive from the three-dimensional network of macromolecules that permeates the jelly and is held together by intermolecular forces and chemical bonds of various types. The two ways by which jellies can be formed are the gelation of mobile and viscous liquids and the swelling of solid polymers in the proper liquid media. Jellies are typically amorphous, homogeneous systems; the nodes of the three-dimensional networks sometimes contain minute crystalline regions (crystallites). Homogeneous jellies and nonstructured solutions of polymers can separate into different phases with the formation of condensation disperse structures, frequently referred to as heterogeneous jellies. Jelly formation is common in the technological processes for making plastics, rubbers, chemical fibers, and food products; it is also widespread in organic nature.

REFERENCES

Voiutskii, S. S. Kurs kolloidnoi khimii, 2nd ed. Moscow, 1975. Page 481.
Papkov, S. P. Studneobraznoe sostoianie polimerov. Moscow, 1974.

L. A. SHITS

References in periodicals archive ?
Our data revealed that at CS12-CS14, the number of a-SMA-positive and a-SMA-negative mesenchymal cells gradually increased in the cardiac jelly of the OFT and contributed to the formation of the bilateral OFT cushions.
Distribution of fibronectin, type I collagen, type IV collagen, and laminin in the cardiac jelly of the mouse embryonic heart with retinoic acid-induced complete transposition of the great arteries.
The team reported experiments demonstrating that chick-embryo endothelial cells placed atop a gel layer in a petri dish broke away from their neighbors and started to travel into the gel when exposed to adherons isolated from the cardiac jelly of embryonic chick hearts.