cardiopulmonary resuscitation

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Related to cardiac resuscitation: heart massage, cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR)

cardiopulmonary resuscitation

(CPR), emergency procedure used to treat victims of cardiac and respiratory arrest. CPR can be done in a hospital with drugs and special equipment or as a first-aid technique. In either case it is done with great urgency to avoid the brain damage or death that result from four to six minutes without oxygen.

The first-aid procedure uses external heart massage (to keep the blood flowing through the body), which may be combined with artificial respiration (to keep air flowing in and out of the lungs). The victim is placed face up and if artificial respirationartificial respiration,
any measure that causes air to flow in and out of a person's lungs when natural breathing is inadequate or ceases, as in respiratory paralysis, drowning, electric shock, choking, gas or smoke inhalation, or poisoning.
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 is to be used, prepared for that. The person administering CPR places his or her hands (one on top of the other, with fingers interlocked) heel down on the victim's breastbone, leans forward, and makes 30 quick, rhythmical compressions (at a rate of about two per second) of about 2 in. (5 cm). This is followed by two breaths, administered using the mouth-to-mouth method of artificial respiration. CPR for infants and children differs in the ratio of compressions to breaths, and the compression of the chest is only 1 to 1.5 in. (2.5 to 3.8 cm). Ideally the procedure is done by two people, one to give mouth-to-mouth artificial respiration and one to apply external heart massage, and special training is recommended.

External heart massage alone may be given if a person is unwilling or unable to provide artificial respiration; studies have shown that heart massage alone can be as effective as both techniques combined. External heart massage only, also known as hands-only CPR, at the rate of 100 compressions per minute, is now considered as acceptable as standard CPR for teenagers and adults who have not collapsed due to breathing problems or drug abuse or who are not drowning victims.

It is recommended that CPR be continued for at least 45 minutes, but if there is no pulse after 20 minutes, experts now recommend considering other prodecures such as extracorporeal membrance oxygenation, in which the blood is circulated through an external filter that oxygenates it. Cardiopulmonary resuscitation in the hospital is an aggressive technique employing drugs and defibrillation equipment, which administers an electrical shock to the heart in an attempt to restore the heartbeat. There is some controversy surrounding its use in patients whose prognosis is poor.

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cardiopulmonary resuscitation

[¦kärd·ē·ō′pu̇l·mə‚ner·ē ri‚səs·ə′tā·shən]
(medicine)
The simultaneous forced ventilation of the lungs and squeezing of the heart ventricles to sustain the flow of oxygenated blood throughout the system; often applied in cases of cardiac arrest. Abbreviated CPR.
McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific & Technical Terms, 6E, Copyright © 2003 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
References in periodicals archive ?
Kawazoe, "Massive pulmonary embolism with liver injury associated with chest compressions during cardiac resuscitation," The Annals of Thoracic Surgery, vol.
For example, while the role of team leader is discussed in the 2011 ACLS Provider Manual (Sinz, Navarro, Soderberg, & Callaway, 2011), roles of other team members in cardiac resuscitation are not.
Abu Dhabi Fifteen mobile cardiac resuscitation devices have been made available at the headquarters and branches of the Abu Dhabi Judicial Department (ADJD) across Abu Dhabi.
The SMC accident and emergency department consultant said protesters admitted to the hospital after clashes with security forces on March 13 and 14 were administered Atropine, which is normally used for cardiac resuscitation.
Each year, the science of cardiac resuscitation grows, but a constant of the past 50 years of CPR has been the importance of having a person who is trained to respond properly when the crisis occurs.
This was followed by a "surprise code blue" scenario (cardiac resuscitation) that occurred during the participants' nutrition break.
Dr Steven Hoefflin, the icon's cosmetic surgeon and family friend, said that that the Jacksons told him that the live-in physician, who was treating the singer in his final moments, allegedly made the 12-year-old boy witness his unsuccessful try at cardiac resuscitation.
"We really depend on those three people and two other call people," Pauley said, adding the paramedics can dispense drugs and have advanced pediatric, airway and cardiac resuscitation training among others.
In late 2003, minimally interrupted cardiac resuscitation (MICR) was developed at the University of Arizona as a new approach to out-of-hospital cardiac arrest performed by emergency medical services (EMS) personnel.
The AMSA analysis was conducted on electrocardiographic recordings of frontal plane lead 2 equivalent recorded during cardiac resuscitation. We hypothesised that a threshold value of AMSA could be identified that would be applicable as an indicator of successful defibrillation in human victims of cardiac arrest.
Doctors said that he later collapsed again in the changing rooms and had to be given cardiac resuscitation before being taken to hospital.
The evening allowed volunteers to share ideas and also raised more then pounds 200 for Cardiac Resuscitation for Young People a local charity which aims to detect heart and circulatory illness.

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