Sarcoidosis

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sarcoidosis

[‚sär‚kȯi′dō·səs]
(medicine)
A disease of unknown etiology characterized by granulomatous lesions, somewhat resembling true tubercles, but showing little or no necrosis, affecting the lymph nodes, skin, liver, spleen, heart, skeletal muscles, lungs, bones in distal parts of the extremities (osteitis cystica of Jüngling), and other structures, and sometimes by hyperglobulinemia, cutaneous anergy, and hypercalcinuria.
McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific & Technical Terms, 6E, Copyright © 2003 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.

Sarcoidosis

 

in man, a systemic granulomatous disease that affects various organs and tissues and produces a variety of symptoms. It was initially described as a skin disease in 1889 by the French dermatologist E. Besnier and the Norwegian dermatologist C. Boeck. Sarcoidosis was first studied as a systemic disease by the Swedish dermatologist J. Schaumann in the first quarter of the 20th century.

The etiology of sarcoidosis is unknown. The disease was once believed to be tuberculous in origin, but this theory has been abandoned by most specialists. Sarcoidosis seems to be similar to reticulosis. It affects the skin (sarcoids of Boeck and other manifestations), the peripheral lymph nodes, and, most commonly, the thoracic lymph nodes and the lungs. Sarcoidosis of the eyes is often in the form of iridocyclitis, and sarcoidosis of the bones is often in the form of osteitis fibrosa cystica. The nervous system and other organs are less commonly affected. There is no cardinal symptom.

Sarcoidosis is diagnosed on the basis of all available data. The disease process, which is usually chronic, is studied, as are the roentgenologic symptoms of pulmonary involvement. The morphological structure is examined: sarcoid granuloma, which consists of epithelioid, lymphoid, and giant noncaseating cells, is characteristic.

The prognosis is usually favorable, and spontaneous involution, especially of the thoracic lesions, is possible. Relapses are common. The prognosis is worse if pneumosclerosis has developed and if the eyes and central nervous system are involved. When the disease is not treated, the mortality rate is approximately 5 percent. Sarcoidosis is treated by the prolonged administration of corticosteroids.

REFERENCES

Raben, A. S. Sarkoidoz. Moscow, 1964. (Bibliography.)
Lebacq, E. La sarcoïdose de Besnier-Boeck-Schaumann. Brussels, 1964.
5th International Conference on Sarcoidosis. Prague, 1971.

A. S. RABEN

The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.
References in periodicals archive ?
The Japanese Ministry of Health clinical diagnostic guidelines for cardiac sarcoidosis aim to identify a constellation of otherwise non-specific symptoms, which when assimilated, raise the suspicion of cardiac involvement of sarcoidosis (Table 1).
(31,32) Recently, an interesting study was performed on a patient with isolated cardiac sarcoidosis. This study demonstrated that early in the course of disease the cytokine milieu did indeed represent a [T.sub.H]1 type response (high IL-2, IL-12) associated with numerous granulomas on endomyocardial biopsy.
Advances in radionuclide imaging of cardiac sarcoidosis. Br Med Bull 2015; 115:151-163.
Subgroup analysis showed that subgroup 1 had an overall sensitivity of 0.91 (95% CI, 0.68-0.98) and specificity of 0.80 (95% CI, 0.72-0.85) in the diagnosis of cardiac sarcoidosis (Figure 7(a)).
Cardiac sarcoidosis is a rare manifestation of sarcoidosis that can occur in severe systemic disease or as an isolated characteristic of the condition.
Some reports examined accumulation of RI in cardiac sarcoidosis lesions using gallium-67 SPECT/CT and FDGPET/CT [7, 8], but these lesions are seen in the left ventricular wall in general.
Falk, "Diagnosis and management of cardiac sarcoidosis," Progress in Cardiovascular Diseases, vol.
Because GCM usually has diffuse or multifocal involvement of the endocardium, endomyocardial biopsy (EMB) tends to have a higher diagnostic sensitivity in GCM than in cardiac sarcoidosis (35%) or lymphocytic myocarditis (25%).
An ECG is insensitive but useful to assess for cardiac sarcoidosis. Clinically significant cardiac sarcoidosis is found in only 5 - 10% of subjects, and about 50% of these will have ECG abnormalities.
Arrighi, "Fasting FDG PET compared to MPI SPECT in cardiac sarcoidosis," Journal of Nuclear Cardiology, vol.
A cardiac sarcoidosis characterized by wide fibrotic areas, can involve the pericardium, the endocardium, or the myocardium areas, mainly in the free wall of the left ventricle and in the interventricular septum creating some possible arrhythmias (from a first grade atrioventricular block to a complete block, atrial arrhythmias, sustained or non-sustained ventricular tachycardia) due to a reentry loop [7].