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Med any sensation or change in bodily function experienced by a patient that is associated with a particular disease
Collins Discovery Encyclopedia, 1st edition © HarperCollins Publishers 2005
The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.



an indication of a phenomenon, for example, of a disease. Many types of symptoms are distinguished in medicine. Constitutional symptoms characterize diseases of varying genesis and include weakness and increases in body temperature. Pathognomonic symptoms indicate a definite nosologic form; a stabbing pain in the epigastric region, for example, is typical of a perforating gastric ulcer. Subjective symptoms are only revealed upon questioning the individual, and objective symptoms are readily observable through examination, palpation, percussion, auscultation, and laboratory and instrumental diagnostic methods. Signal symptoms are the precursors of a disease. They include early symptoms, such as chest pains with pneumonia, and late symptoms, such as peritoneal irritation with cholecystitis.

A disease is said to be atypical if its characteristic symptoms are absent from the very beginning; an example of an atypical disease is the painless form of myocardial infarction. Modern therapeutic measures and protective inoculations can substantially alter the symptoms of a disease and even cause them to disappear. Diagnosis and prognosis are based on a knowledge of all of the symptoms of a disease.

The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.


A phenomenon of physical or mental disorder or disturbance which leads to complaints on the part of the patient.
McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific & Technical Terms, 6E, Copyright © 2003 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
References in periodicals archive ?
While many of these cardinal symptoms are found in immune-competent patients in response to an infectious organism, they are more pronounced in patients with HLH.
Understanding the cardinal symptoms and progression of PD is helpful in long term management and education of patient.
PHRP-values after 2 min of 50 W exercise were given as absolute data (not difference from resting values; baseline 171 [+ or -] 43 mmHg/min), symptoms and quality of live were documented by the 21 item Minnesota Living with Heart Failure Questionnaire (MLHF), four cardinal symptoms (reduced physical ability, tiredness, exertional dyspnea, and palpitations) were rated from 1 (no symptoms) to 5 (severe) by investigators.
In the case of CHD, results showed that even with the exact same patient communication of cardinal symptoms, physician certainty of the CHD diagnosis is significantly greater if the observed patient is male--even holding other factors (age, race, and socioeconomic status) constant (Arber et al.
The researchers concluded that inadequate sleep and sleep difficulties are associated with hyperactivity and impulsivity, cardinal symptoms of ADHD.
It is one of the cardinal symptoms of a pulmonary or cardiac disease but can result from other abnormalities which include anxiety.
The cardinal symptoms of influenza are fever, plus at least one respiratory symptom ( cough, sore throat, nasal congestion) and at least one systemic symptom ( headache, muscle pains, sweats/ chills, fatigue).
More controversy exists about whether or not patients who present with the cardinal symptoms and rapid cycling should be categorized as bipolar not otherwise specified (NOS), but included in the spectrum, she said.
On the three cardinal symptoms of IBS--abdominal pain/discomfort, bloating or distention, and bowel movement difficulty, the Bifidobacterium was superior to the Lactobacillus, and the therapeutic gain of 20%-25% over placebo was equivalent to that reported for tegaserod (Gastroenterology 2005; 128:541-51).
The trial will be a 16-week, double-blinded comparison with 300 patients randomized between SinuNase (intranasal lavage of 0.01% amphotericin B) and placebo, with the primary endpoint being the resolution of the key cardinal symptoms of chronic sinusitis.