cardiopulmonary resuscitation


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cardiopulmonary resuscitation

(CPR), emergency procedure used to treat victims of cardiac and respiratory arrest. CPR can be done in a hospital with drugs and special equipment or as a first-aid technique. In either case it is done with great urgency to avoid the brain damage or death that result from four to six minutes without oxygen.

The first-aid procedure uses external heart massage (to keep the blood flowing through the body), which may be combined with artificial respiration (to keep air flowing in and out of the lungs). The victim is placed face up and if artificial respirationartificial respiration,
any measure that causes air to flow in and out of a person's lungs when natural breathing is inadequate or ceases, as in respiratory paralysis, drowning, electric shock, choking, gas or smoke inhalation, or poisoning.
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 is to be used, prepared for that. The person administering CPR places his or her hands (one on top of the other, with fingers interlocked) heel down on the victim's breastbone, leans forward, and makes 30 quick, rhythmical compressions (at a rate of about two per second) of about 2 in. (5 cm). This is followed by two breaths, administered using the mouth-to-mouth method of artificial respiration. CPR for infants and children differs in the ratio of compressions to breaths, and the compression of the chest is only 1 to 1.5 in. (2.5 to 3.8 cm). Ideally the procedure is done by two people, one to give mouth-to-mouth artificial respiration and one to apply external heart massage, and special training is recommended.

External heart massage alone may be given if a person is unwilling or unable to provide artificial respiration; studies have shown that heart massage alone can be as effective as both techniques combined. External heart massage only, also known as hands-only CPR, at the rate of 100 compressions per minute, is now considered as acceptable as standard CPR for teenagers and adults who have not collapsed due to breathing problems or drug abuse or who are not drowning victims.

It is recommended that CPR be continued for at least 45 minutes, but if there is no pulse after 20 minutes, experts now recommend considering other prodecures such as extracorporeal membrance oxygenation, in which the blood is circulated through an external filter that oxygenates it. Cardiopulmonary resuscitation in the hospital is an aggressive technique employing drugs and defibrillation equipment, which administers an electrical shock to the heart in an attempt to restore the heartbeat. There is some controversy surrounding its use in patients whose prognosis is poor.

cardiopulmonary resuscitation

[¦kärd·ē·ō′pu̇l·mə‚ner·ē ri‚səs·ə′tā·shən]
(medicine)
The simultaneous forced ventilation of the lungs and squeezing of the heart ventricles to sustain the flow of oxygenated blood throughout the system; often applied in cases of cardiac arrest. Abbreviated CPR.
References in periodicals archive ?
Coronary perfusion pressure and the return of spontaneous circulation in human cardiopulmonary resuscitation. JAMA.
Kids save lives: a six- year longitudinal study of schoolchildren learning cardiopulmonary resuscitation: Who should do the teaching and will the effects last?
"Kids Save Lives': Educating Schoolchildren in Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation Is a Civic Duty That Needs Support for Implementation.
Goldberger et al., "Part 5: adult basic life support and cardiopulmonary resuscitation quality: 2015 American Heart Association guidelines update for cardiopulmonary resuscitation and emergency cardiovascular care," Circulation, vol.
Sugarman, "Ethics in the use of extracorporeal cardiopulmonary resuscitation in adults," Resuscitation, vol.
Jorens, "Gastric perforation after cardiopulmonary resuscitation: Review of the literature," Resuscitation, vol.
Tsitlik et al., "Augmentation of carotid flow during cardiopulmonary resuscitation by ventilation at high airway pressure simultaneous with chest compression," American Journal of Cardiology, vol.
Cardiopulmonary arrest (CPA) is a sudden and an unexpected stop in patients' breathing and/or circulation for because of multiple reasons.1 Cardiac arrest continues to be a leading cause of death in many regions of the world.2-5 Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) can double or triple the likelihood of survival after cardiac arrest.6 Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) includes all the practices and efforts for bringing a person who is in cardiac arrest back to life.
Just as it is imperative to promptly initiate a RRT, an essential element of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) is initiation without delay (Meaney et al., 2013).
Inaba, "The continuous quality improvement project for telephone-assisted instruction of cardiopulmonary resuscitation increased the incidence of bystander CPR and improved the outcomes of out-of-hospital cardiac arrests," Resuscitation, vol.
Objective: To determine the differences between the factors such as return of spontaneous circulation positivity, duration of cardiopulmonary resuscitation, and cardiac rhythm at first arrival affecting neurological outcomes in cardiac-arrest cases.

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