strain: see strength of materialsstrength of materials,
measurement in engineering of the capacity of metal, wood, concrete, and other materials to withstand stress and strain. Stress is the internal force exerted by one part of an elastic body upon the adjoining part, and strain is the deformation or change in
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The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.
a pure culture of a species of microorganism in which its morphological and physiological characteristics are studied.
Strains can be isolated from a variety of sources, for example, soil, water, or food, or they can be isolated from a single source at different times. Hence, the same species of bacterium, yeast, or microscopic fungus may have a great many strains, differing from one another in several characteristics, such as sensitivity to antibiotics and capacity to produce toxins and enzymes. Commercial strains of microorganisms developed as a result of selection and used in industry for the microbiological synthesis of proteins (including enzymes), antibiotics, vitamins, and organic acids are much more productive than wild strains.
The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.
An intraspecific group of organisms that possess only one or a few distinctive traits and are maintained as an artificial breeding group.
(cell and molecular biology)
A population of cells derived either from a primary culture or from a cell line by the selection or cloning of cells having specific properties or markers.
Change in length of an object in some direction per unit undistorted length in some direction, not necessarily the same; the nine possible strains form a second-rank tensor.
McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific & Technical Terms, 6E, Copyright © 2003 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
A change in the form or shape of a body or material which is subjected to an external force.
McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Architecture and Construction. Copyright © 2003 by McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
Any deformation or deflection in a body caused by stress. The strain is directly proportional to the stress, as a load is applied until the proportional limit is reached. Beyond that point, the strain may
increase at a changing rate until the yield stress is reached, but the part will return to its original size and shape when the load is removed and the strain is zero. The body will be deformed if the yield stress is exceeded. The strain is recorded as the change of size over the original size.
An Illustrated Dictionary of Aviation Copyright © 2005 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved
1. Music a theme, melody, or tune
2. a feeling of tension and tiredness resulting from overwork, worry, etc.; stress
3. a particular style or recurring theme in speech or writing
4. Physics the change in dimension of a body under load expressed as the ratio of the total deflection or change in dimension to the original unloaded dimension. It may be a ratio of lengths, areas, or volumes
1. a group of organisms within a species or variety, distinguished by one or more minor characteristics
2. a variety of bacterium or fungus, esp one used for a culture
Collins Discovery Encyclopedia, 1st edition © HarperCollins Publishers 2005