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popular hymn, of joyful nature, in celebration of an occasion such as May Day, Easter, or Christmas. The earliest English carols date from the 15th cent. The carol is characterized by simplicity of thought and expression. Many are thought to be adaptations of pagan songs. Despite the folk-song character of true carols, many Christmas hymns composed in the 19th cent. have been called carols. The oldest printed carol is the Boar's Head Carol, printed in 1521 by Wynkyn de Worde. Carols of French origin are called noels.


See R. L. Greene, The Early English Carols (1935); E. Routley, The English Carol (1958); P. Dearmer et al., ed., The Oxford Book of Carols (1928, repr. 1964).



(Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen), rulers of Rumania.

Carol I. Born Apr. 20, 1839, in Sigmaringen, Germany; died Oct. 10, 1914, in Sinaia, Rumania. Prince of Rumania from 1866 to 1881 and then king. A relative of the Prussian king William I, he was elected prince by a reactionary coalition of landowners and bourgeoisie known as the “monstrous coalition.” His foreign policy was favorable to Germany and Austria-Hungary. In 1883 he concluded a secret treaty of Rumanian adherence to the Triple Alliance of 1882.

Carol II. Born Oct. 15, 1893, in Sinaia, Rumania; died Apr. 4, 1953, in Estoril, Portugal. King from 1930 to 1940. In February 1938 he established a royal dictatorship, abolished political parties and trade unions, and formed the National Renaissance Front, a reactionary, fascist-type organization. In March 1939 he concluded an economic treaty with Germany that was highly unfavorable to Rumania. He also submitted to the Vienna Arbitration of 1940, which took northern Transylvania away from Rumania and granted it to Hungary. In September of that year, however, as the result of growing internal and external opposition, he abdicated and went abroad.


Tütui, G., and M. Popa. Hohenzollernii in Rominia. Bucharest, 1962.


An area in a cloister set off by screens, partitions, or railings; similar in use to a carrel.


1. a joyful hymn or religious song, esp one (a Christmas carol) celebrating the birth of Christ
2. Archaic an old English circular dance
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Carol, 55, and Joel, 31, have flirted since arriving in camp, with Carol teasing Joel about "touching his stick" after he carved one for her.
Some celebrate Carol as a love story with a happy ending, but there is something like melancholy arising from the covert relationship.
Like St Mary's Church, St John is hosting the Waiting For Jesus carol service along with an impromptu nativity play.
Carol and Therese don't fit neatly into a subculture "or in that time, an underground movement," Blanchett says in the press notes.
Carol showed it to her motherin-law, a retired seamstress, who was certain the dress was made in China.
Carol says: The Easter flower, imported long since from Europe.
Many wanted to know her secret, with one asking: "Where did Carol Vorderman buy her bum and where can I get one?
The plot of A Carol Dickens Christmas develops at a gentle, engaging pace as it draws connections to various Christmas traditions.
This is a companion volume to Ian Russell's Sheffield Book of Village Carols (Village Carols, rev.
TRADITIONAL carols could be heard through the grounds of Beaumont Park yesterday.
Carol said: "It was really exciting to see the Queen.
The glittering concert is in its 17th year while the carol competition is back for the 13th year.