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carol, popular hymn, of joyful nature, in celebration of an occasion such as May Day, Easter, or Christmas. The earliest English carols date from the 15th cent. The carol is characterized by simplicity of thought and expression. Many are thought to be adaptations of pagan songs. Despite the folk-song character of true carols, many Christmas hymns composed in the 19th cent. have been called carols. The oldest printed carol is the Boar's Head Carol, printed in 1521 by Wynkyn de Worde. Carols of French origin are called noels.


See R. L. Greene, The Early English Carols (1935); E. Routley, The English Carol (1958); P. Dearmer et al., ed., The Oxford Book of Carols (1928, repr. 1964).

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The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.



(Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen), rulers of Rumania.

Carol I. Born Apr. 20, 1839, in Sigmaringen, Germany; died Oct. 10, 1914, in Sinaia, Rumania. Prince of Rumania from 1866 to 1881 and then king. A relative of the Prussian king William I, he was elected prince by a reactionary coalition of landowners and bourgeoisie known as the “monstrous coalition.” His foreign policy was favorable to Germany and Austria-Hungary. In 1883 he concluded a secret treaty of Rumanian adherence to the Triple Alliance of 1882.

Carol II. Born Oct. 15, 1893, in Sinaia, Rumania; died Apr. 4, 1953, in Estoril, Portugal. King from 1930 to 1940. In February 1938 he established a royal dictatorship, abolished political parties and trade unions, and formed the National Renaissance Front, a reactionary, fascist-type organization. In March 1939 he concluded an economic treaty with Germany that was highly unfavorable to Rumania. He also submitted to the Vienna Arbitration of 1940, which took northern Transylvania away from Rumania and granted it to Hungary. In September of that year, however, as the result of growing internal and external opposition, he abdicated and went abroad.


Tütui, G., and M. Popa. Hohenzollernii in Rominia. Bucharest, 1962.
The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.


An area in a cloister set off by screens, partitions, or railings; similar in use to a carrel.
McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Architecture and Construction. Copyright © 2003 by McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.


1. a joyful hymn or religious song, esp one (a Christmas carol) celebrating the birth of Christ
2. Archaic an old English circular dance
Collins Discovery Encyclopedia, 1st edition © HarperCollins Publishers 2005
References in periodicals archive ?
Thomas Fox Averill; A CAROL DICKENS CHRISTMAS; University of New Mexico Press (Fiction: Literary) 19.95 ISBN: 9780826355010
Bianca is guilt-ridden (well, isn't she always after doing something stupid yet again?), especially when Sonia gives her a proper earbashing for adding to Carol's stress.
Carol Raeburn, Carol Raeburn Jewelry's sole proprietor, is a resident of Singapore.
This is a companion volume to Ian Russell's Sheffield Book of Village Carols (Village Carols, rev.
Carol said: "It was really exciting to see the Queen.
Medwyn Parri, S4C's Head of Events and Event Television, said: "We are pleased to be a part of the Thousands of Christmas Voices 2011 Carol Competition again this year.
Carol has resumed filming of the scenes for her upcoming television drama "Al Shahroora" that is about the life journey of Lebanese diva Sabah.
The uncertainty of the disease affected the entire Mulumba family, giving no rest to Carol's mother.
The winner will receive pounds 1,000 and have his or her carol performed on their doorstep by the largest doorstep carol singing event "of all time", organisers said.
Carol never dreamed she would lead the legal fight against Merck the drug's manufacturer--when she filed her lawsuit, but because hers was the first of 4,000 Vioxx cases to go to trial, she was put in that position.
EL161206CAROL-5 Picture, Emma Lee Members of the children's choir exchange glances as they come together for a carol concert in Victoria Square, Birmingham
Marianne and Carol: Within a few months we received a call from Friends in Adoption stating that there was a birth mother in our area who wanted an open adoption.