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popular hymn, of joyful nature, in celebration of an occasion such as May Day, Easter, or Christmas. The earliest English carols date from the 15th cent. The carol is characterized by simplicity of thought and expression. Many are thought to be adaptations of pagan songs. Despite the folk-song character of true carols, many Christmas hymns composed in the 19th cent. have been called carols. The oldest printed carol is the Boar's Head Carol, printed in 1521 by Wynkyn de Worde. Carols of French origin are called noels.


See R. L. Greene, The Early English Carols (1935); E. Routley, The English Carol (1958); P. Dearmer et al., ed., The Oxford Book of Carols (1928, repr. 1964).



(Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen), rulers of Rumania.

Carol I. Born Apr. 20, 1839, in Sigmaringen, Germany; died Oct. 10, 1914, in Sinaia, Rumania. Prince of Rumania from 1866 to 1881 and then king. A relative of the Prussian king William I, he was elected prince by a reactionary coalition of landowners and bourgeoisie known as the “monstrous coalition.” His foreign policy was favorable to Germany and Austria-Hungary. In 1883 he concluded a secret treaty of Rumanian adherence to the Triple Alliance of 1882.

Carol II. Born Oct. 15, 1893, in Sinaia, Rumania; died Apr. 4, 1953, in Estoril, Portugal. King from 1930 to 1940. In February 1938 he established a royal dictatorship, abolished political parties and trade unions, and formed the National Renaissance Front, a reactionary, fascist-type organization. In March 1939 he concluded an economic treaty with Germany that was highly unfavorable to Rumania. He also submitted to the Vienna Arbitration of 1940, which took northern Transylvania away from Rumania and granted it to Hungary. In September of that year, however, as the result of growing internal and external opposition, he abdicated and went abroad.


Tütui, G., and M. Popa. Hohenzollernii in Rominia. Bucharest, 1962.


An area in a cloister set off by screens, partitions, or railings; similar in use to a carrel.


1. a joyful hymn or religious song, esp one (a Christmas carol) celebrating the birth of Christ
2. Archaic an old English circular dance
References in periodicals archive ?
The Top Red Carollers, who play and sing in the Top Red Lion, a Grenoside pub, have taken on the challenge of bringing back the string parts, under the guidance of Ray Ellison.
Our carollers had barely finished the first verse of The Holly And The Ivy when a familiar Essex boy voice joined in with the singing over the intercom.
Sadly the carollers were out of luck when they mentioned there was a long cold night ahead and wondered if there were any mince pies on offer.
Father Christmas will also be visiting the park to wish all the carollers a merry Christmas and a happy New Year.
The carollers sing to the new-born King And, with cold hands, the bells they ring.
Father Christmas will also be visiting the park to wish carollers a Merry Christmas during the concert.
Sunday brings a familiar festive scene with a twist, as the Armistead Project's queer carollers take the stage at the Masquerade Bar.
Whilst the loss of carollers, and century's old tradition, is regrettable, the expanding popularity of predatory doorstop muggings that herald Halloween is loathsome for many, terrifying and verging on the criminal, but unfortunately very much in tune with these times.
The carol singing will start at 11am and there will be hot drinks and mince pies to refresh thirsty carollers.