This is attributed to polymer chain flexibility near [T.sub.g] The dielectric loss increases at higher temperatures due to the thermally activated, increased charge carrier density
. As the temperature of the material increases, the degree of salt dissociation and redissociation of ion aggregates increases, resulting in an overall increase in the number of free ions or the charge carrier density
For the electro-optic modulator, the carrier density
of waveguide region is one of the key parameters.
[Cu.sub.2]O prepared by thermal oxidation or by physical vapor deposition usually contains copper vacancy ([V.sub.Cu]) defects with a carrier density
as high as [10.sup.18] [cm.sup.-3] that results in its p-type conductivity .
[B.sub.op] being the GaAs spontaneous emission coefficient and [n.sub.i] the thermal equilibrium carrier density
. Nonradiative recombination follows the Shockley-Read-Hall theory
This is consistent with the change in the carrier density
of the surface of the Sn[O.sub.2] thin film, as presented in Table 2.
Most of the hot carrier graphene devices in the high carrier density
limit (the Bloch-Gruneisen temperature ([T.sub.BG]) > the lattice temperature ([T.sub.L])) show the dominant cooling power from a weak coupling of carriers to acoustic phonon processes [7-10], which is represented by a heat flow power law equation P = [SIGMA]([T.sup.[delta].sub.e] - [T.sub.[delta].sup.L]) , where [delta] = 4 is a characteristic exponent, [T.sub.se] is the carrier temperature, [T.sub.L] is the lattice temperature, and [SIGMA] is the coupling constant.
The Science Park asset, which has access to more than 100 carriers and ISPs, doubles Interxion's existing carrier density
in Amsterdam and will enable customers across the metro area to interconnect at low latency and low cost.
Semiconductor lasers use semiconductor gain medium, where optical gain is achieved by injecting current at an interband transition with high carrier density
in the conduction band.
For an isolate graphene sheet, the chemical potential is determined by the carrier density
It is a 2 + 1-dimensional system of PDEs which governs the spatio-temporal dynamics of the complex slowly varying amplitudes of the counter-propagating fields [E.sup.[+ or -]](z', x', t'), polarization functions [P.sup.[+ or -]] (z', x',t') and real carrier density
1) can be described with two equations of the photon number and the carrier density
. The mathematical model is represented with the following rate equations :